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    A project model for the FreeBSD Project
      Table of Contents
      Foreword
      Overview
      Definitions
        Table of Contents
        Activity
        Process
        Hat
        Outcome
        FreeBSD
      Organisational structure
      Methodology model
        Development model
        Release branches
        Model summary
      Hats
        General Hats
        Official Hats
        Process dependent hats
      Processes
        Adding new and removing old committers
        Adding/Removing an official CVSup Mirror
        Committing code
        Core election
        Development of new features
        Maintenance
        Problem reporting
        Reacting to misbehaviour
        Release engineering
      Tools
        Concurrent Versions System (CVS)
        CVSup
        GNATS
        Mailman
        Perforce
        Pretty Good Privacy
        Secure Shell
      Sub-projects
        The Ports Subproject
        The FreeBSD Documentation Project
      References
    FreeBSD FAQ
      Copyright
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
      Documentation and Support
      Installation
      Hardware Compatibility
        General
        Memory
        Architectures and Processors
        Hard Drives, Tape Drives, and CD and DVD Drives
        Keyboards and Mice
        Networking and Serial Devices
        Sound Devices
        Other Hardware
      Troubleshooting
      Commercial Applications
      User Applications
      Kernel Configuration
      Disks, File Systems, and Boot Loaders
      System Administration
      The X Window System and Virtual Consoles
      Networking
      Security
      PPP
      Serial Communications
      Miscellaneous Questions
      The FreeBSD Funnies
      Advanced Topics
      Acknowledgments
      Bibliography
    FreeBSD Handbook
      Copyright
      Table of Contents
      Preface
      Getting Started
        Introduction
          Synopsis
          Welcome to FreeBSD!
          About the FreeBSD Project
        Installing FreeBSD
          Synopsis
          Hardware Requirements
          Pre-installation Tasks
          Starting the Installation
          Introducing Sysinstall
          Allocating Disk Space
          Choosing What to Install
          Choosing Your Installation Media
          Committing to the Installation
          Post-installation
          Troubleshooting
          Advanced Installation Guide
          Preparing Your Own Installation Media
        UNIX Basics
          Synopsis
          Virtual Consoles and Terminals
          Permissions
          Directory Structure
          Disk Organization
          Mounting and Unmounting File Systems
          Processes
          Daemons, Signals, and Killing Processes
          Shells
          Text Editors
          Devices and Device Nodes
          Binary Formats
          For More Information
        Installing Applications: Packages and Ports
          Synopsis
          Overview of Software Installation
          Finding Your Application
          Using the Packages System
          Using the Ports Collection
          Post-installation Activities
          Dealing with Broken Ports
        The X Window System
          Synopsis
          Understanding X
          Installing X11
          X11 Configuration
          Using Fonts in X11
          The X Display Manager
          Desktop Environments
      Common Tasks
        Desktop Applications
          Synopsis
          Browsers
          Productivity
          Document Viewers
          Finance
          Summary
        Multimedia
          Synopsis
          Setting Up the Sound Card
          MP3 Audio
          Video Playback
          Setting Up TV Cards
          Image Scanners
        Configuring the FreeBSD Kernel
          Synopsis
          Why Build a Custom Kernel?
          Finding the System Hardware
          Kernel Drivers, Subsystems, and Modules
          Building and Installing a Custom Kernel
          The Configuration File
          If Something Goes Wrong
        Printing
          Synopsis
          Introduction
          Basic Setup
          Advanced Printer Setup
          Using Printers
          Alternatives to the Standard Spooler
          Troubleshooting
        Linux Binary Compatibility
          Synopsis
          Installation
          Installing Mathematica
          Installing Maple
          Installing MATLAB
          Installing Oracle
          Installing SAP R/3
          Advanced Topics
      System Administration
        Configuration and Tuning
          Synopsis
          Initial Configuration
          Core Configuration
          Application Configuration
          Starting Services
          Configuring the cron Utility
          Using rc under FreeBSD
          Setting Up Network Interface Cards
          Virtual Hosts
          Configuration Files
          Tuning with sysctl
          Tuning Disks
          Tuning Kernel Limits
          Adding Swap Space
          Power and Resource Management
          Using and Debugging FreeBSD ACPI
        The FreeBSD Booting Process
          Synopsis
          The Booting Problem
          The Boot Manager and Boot Stages
          Kernel Interaction During Boot
          Device Hints
          Init: Process Control Initialization
          Shutdown Sequence
        Users and Basic Account Management
          Synopsis
          Introduction
          The Superuser Account
          System Accounts
          User Accounts
          Modifying Accounts
          Limiting Users
          Groups
        Security
          Synopsis
          Introduction
          Securing FreeBSD
          DES, Blowfish, MD5, and Crypt
          One-time Passwords
          TCP Wrappers
          KerberosIV
          Kerberos5
          OpenSSL
          VPN over IPsec
          OpenSSH
          File System Access Control Lists
          Monitoring Third Party Security Issues
          FreeBSD Security Advisories
          Process Accounting
        Jails
          Synopsis
          Terms Related to Jails
          Introduction
          Creating and Controlling Jails
          Fine Tuning and Administration
          Application of Jails
        Mandatory Access Control
          Synopsis
          Key Terms in this Chapter
          Explanation of MAC
          Understanding MAC Labels
          Planning the Security Configuration
          Module Configuration
          The MAC seeotheruids Module
          The MAC bsdextended Module
          The MAC ifoff Module
          The MAC portacl Module
          The MAC partition Module
          The MAC Multi-Level Security Module
          The MAC Biba Module
          The MAC LOMAC Module
          Nagios in a MAC Jail
          User Lock Down
          Troubleshooting the MAC Framework
        Security Event Auditing
          Synopsis
          Key Terms in this Chapter
          Installing Audit Support
          Audit Configuration
          Administering the Audit Subsystem
        Storage
          Synopsis
          Device Names
          Adding Disks
          RAID
          USB Storage Devices
          Creating and Using Optical Media (CDs)
          Creating and Using Optical Media (DVDs)
          Creating and Using Floppy Disks
          Creating and Using Data Tapes
          Backups to Floppies
          Backup Strategies
          Backup Basics
          Network, Memory, and File-Backed File Systems
          File System Snapshots
          File System Quotas
          Encrypting Disk Partitions
          Encrypting Swap Space
        GEOM: Modular Disk Transformation Framework
          Synopsis
          GEOM Introduction
          RAID0 - Striping
          RAID1 - Mirroring
          GEOM Gate Network Devices
          Labeling Disk Devices
          UFS Journaling Through GEOM
        File Systems Support
          Synopsis
          The Z File System
        The Vinum Volume Manager
          Synopsis
          Disks Are Too Small
          Access Bottlenecks
          Data Integrity
          Vinum Objects
          Some Examples
          Object Naming
          Configuring Vinum
          Using Vinum for the Root Filesystem
        Virtualization
          Synopsis
          FreeBSD as a Guest OS
          FreeBSD as a Host OS
        Localization - I18N/L10N Usage and Setup
          Synopsis
          The Basics
          Using Localization
          Compiling I18N Programs
          Localizing FreeBSD to Specific Languages
        Updating and Upgrading FreeBSD
          Synopsis
          FreeBSD Update
          Portsnap: A Ports Collection Update Tool
          Updating the Documentation Set
          Tracking a Development Branch
          Synchronizing Your Source
          Rebuilding world
          Tracking for Multiple Machines
        DTrace
          Synopsis
          Implementation Differences
          Enabling DTrace Support
          Using DTrace
          The D Language
      Network Communication
        Serial Communications
          Synopsis
          Introduction
          Terminals
          Dial-in Service
          Dial-out Service
          Setting Up the Serial Console
        PPP and SLIP
          Synopsis
          Using User PPP
          Using Kernel PPP
          Troubleshooting PPP Connections
          Using PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE)
          Using PPP over ATM (PPPoA)
          Using SLIP
        Electronic Mail
          Synopsis
          Using Electronic Mail
          sendmail Configuration
          Changing Your Mail Transfer Agent
          Troubleshooting
          Advanced Topics
          SMTP with UUCP
          Setting Up to Send Only
          Using Mail with a Dialup Connection
          SMTP Authentication
          Mail User Agents
          Using fetchmail
          Using procmail
        Network Servers
          Synopsis
          The inetd Super-Server
          Network File System (NFS)
          Network Information System (NIS/YP)
          Automatic Network Configuration (DHCP)
          Domain Name System (DNS)
          Apache HTTP Server
          File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
          File and Print Services for Microsoft Windows clients (Samba)
          Clock Synchronization with NTP
          Remote Host Logging with syslogd
        Firewalls
          Introduction
          Firewall Concepts
          Firewall Packages
          The OpenBSD Packet Filter (PF) and ALTQ
          The IPFILTER (IPF) Firewall
          IPFW
        Advanced Networking
          Synopsis
          Gateways and Routes
          Wireless Networking
          Bluetooth
          Bridging
          Link Aggregation and Failover
          Diskless Operation
          ISDN
          Network Address Translation
          Parallel Line IP (PLIP)
          IPv6
          Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
          Common Access Redundancy Protocol (CARP)
      Appendices
        A. Obtaining FreeBSD
          CDROM and DVD Publishers
          FTP Sites
          BitTorrent
          Anonymous CVS
          Using CTM
          Using CVSup
          CVS Tags
          AFS Sites
          rsync Sites
        B. Bibliography
          Books & Magazines Specific to FreeBSD
          Users' Guides
          Administrators' Guides
          Programmers' Guides
          Operating System Internals
          Security Reference
          Hardware Reference
          UNIX History
          Magazines and Journals
        C. Resources on the Internet
          Mailing Lists
          Usenet Newsgroups
          World Wide Web Servers
          Email Addresses
        D. PGP Keys
          Officers
          Core Team Members
          Developers
      FreeBSD Glossary
      Index
      Colophon
    FreeBSD Developer's Handbook
      Copyright
      Table of Contents
      Basics
        Introduction
          Developing on FreeBSD
          The BSD Vision
          Architectural Guidelines
          The Layout of /usr/src
        Programming Tools
          Synopsis
          Introduction
          Introduction to Programming
          Compiling with cc
          Make
          Debugging
          Using Emacs as a Development Environment
          Further Reading
        Secure Programming
          Synopsis
          Secure Design Methodology
          Buffer Overflows
          SetUID issues
          Limiting your program's environment
          Trust
          Race Conditions
        Localization and Internationalization - L10N and I18N
          Programming I18N Compliant Applications
        Source Tree Guidelines and Policies
          MAINTAINER on Makefiles
          Contributed Software
          Encumbered Files
          Shared Libraries
        Regression and Performance Testing
          Micro Benchmark Checklist
      Interprocess Communication
        Sockets
          Synopsis
          Networking and Diversity
          Protocols
          The Sockets Model
          Essential Socket Functions
          Helper Functions
          Concurrent Servers
        IPv6 Internals
          IPv6/IPsec Implementation
      Kernel
        Building and Installing a FreeBSD Kernel
          Building a Kernel the Traditional Way
          Building a Kernel the New Way
        Kernel Debugging
          Obtaining a Kernel Crash Dump
          Debugging a Kernel Crash Dump with kgdb
          Debugging a Crash Dump with DDD
          Post-Mortem Analysis of a Dump
          On-Line Kernel Debugging Using DDB
          On-Line Kernel Debugging Using Remote GDB
          Debugging Loadable Modules Using GDB
          Debugging a Console Driver
          Debugging Deadlocks
          Glossary of Kernel Options for Debugging
      Architectures
        x86 Assembly Language Programming
          Synopsis
          The Tools
          System Calls
          Return Values
          Creating Portable Code
          Our First Program
          Writing UNIX Filters
          Buffered Input and Output
          Command Line Arguments
          UNIX Environment
          Working with Files
          One-Pointed Mind
          Using the FPU
          Caveats
          Acknowledgements
      Appendices
      Bibliography
      Index
    FreeBSD Architecture Handbook
      Copyright
      Table of Contents
      Kernel
        Table of Contents
        Bootstrapping and kernel initialization
          Table of Contents
          Synopsis
          Overview
          BIOS POST
          boot0 stage
          boot2 stage
          loader stage
          Kernel initialization
        Locking Notes
          Table of Contents
          Mutexes
          Shared Exclusive Locks
          Atomically Protected Variables
        Kernel Objects
          Table of Contents
          Terminology
          Kobj Operation
          Using Kobj
        The Jail Subsystem
          Table of Contents
          Architecture
          Restrictions
        The Sysinit Framework
          Table of Contents
          Terminology
          SYSINIT Operation
          Using SYSINIT
        The TrustedBSD MAC Framework
          Table of Contents
          MAC Documentation Copyright
          Synopsis
          Introduction
          Policy Background
          MAC Framework Kernel Architecture
          MAC Policy Architecture
          MAC Policy Entry Point Reference
          Userland Architecture
          Conclusion
        Virtual Memory System
          Table of Contents
          Management of physical memory--vm_page_t
          The unified buffer cache--vm_object_t
          Filesystem I/O--struct buf
          Mapping Page Tables--vm_map_t, vm_entry_t
          KVM Memory Mapping
          Tuning the FreeBSD VM system
        SMPng Design Document
          Table of Contents
          Introduction
          Basic Tools and Locking Fundamentals
          General Architecture and Design
          Specific Locking Strategies
          Implementation Notes
          Miscellaneous Topics
          Glossary
      Device Drivers
        Table of Contents
        Writing FreeBSD Device Drivers
          Table of Contents
          Introduction
          Dynamic Kernel Linker Facility - KLD
          Accessing a device driver
          Character Devices
          Block Devices (Are Gone)
          Network Drivers
        ISA device drivers
          Table of Contents
          Synopsis
          Basic information
          Device_t pointer
          Configuration file and the order of identifying and probing during auto-configuration
          Resources
          Bus memory mapping
          DMA
          xxx_isa_probe
          xxx_isa_attach
          xxx_isa_detach
          xxx_isa_shutdown
          xxx_intr
        PCI Devices
          Table of Contents
          Probe and Attach
          Bus Resources
        Common Access Method SCSI Controllers
          Table of Contents
          Synopsis
          General architecture
          Polling
          Asynchronous Events
          Interrupts
          Errors Summary
          Timeout Handling
        USB Devices
          Table of Contents
          Introduction
          Host Controllers
          USB Device Information
          Device probe and attach
          USB Drivers Protocol Information
        Newbus
          Table of Contents
          Device Drivers
          Overview of Newbus
          Newbus API
        Sound subsystem
          Table of Contents
          Introduction
          Files
          Probing, attaching, etc.
          Interfaces
        PC Card
          Adding a device
      Appendices
        Bibliography
      Index
    FreeBSD Porter's Handbook
      Copyright
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
      Making a port yourself
      Quick Porting
        Writing the Makefile
        Writing the description files
          pkg-descr
          pkg-plist
        Creating the checksum file
        Testing the port
        Checking your port with portlint
        Submitting the port
      Slow Porting
        How things work
        Getting the original sources
        Modifying the port
        Patching
        Configuring
        Handling user input
      Configuring the Makefile
        The original source
        Naming
          PORTNAME and PORTVERSION
          PORTREVISION and PORTEPOCH
          PKGNAMEPREFIX and PKGNAMESUFFIX
          LATEST_LINK
          Package Naming Conventions
        Categorization
          CATEGORIES
          Current list of categories
          Choosing the right category
          Proposing a new category
          Proposing reorganizing all the categories
        The distribution files
          DISTVERSION/DISTNAME
          MASTER_SITES
          EXTRACT_SUFX
          DISTFILES
          EXTRACT_ONLY
          PATCHFILES
          Multiple distribution files or patches from different sites and subdirectories (MASTER_SITES:n)
          DIST_SUBDIR
          ALWAYS_KEEP_DISTFILES
        MAINTAINER
        COMMENT
        Dependencies
          LIB_DEPENDS
          RUN_DEPENDS
          BUILD_DEPENDS
          FETCH_DEPENDS
          EXTRACT_DEPENDS
          PATCH_DEPENDS
          USE_*
          Minimal version of a dependency
          Notes on dependencies
          Circular dependencies are fatal
        MASTERDIR
        Manpages
        Info files
        Makefile Options
          Knobs
          OPTIONS
          Feature auto-activation
        Specifying the working directory
          WRKSRC
          NO_WRKSUBDIR
        CONFLICTS
        Installing files
          INSTALL_* macros
          Stripping Binaries
          Installing a whole tree of files
          Install additional documentation
          Subdirectories under PREFIX
      Special considerations
        Shared Libraries
        Ports with distribution restrictions
          NO_PACKAGE
          NO_CDROM
          NOFETCHFILES
          RESTRICTED
          RESTRICTED_FILES
        Building mechanisms
          make, gmake, and imake
          configure script
          Using scons
        Using GNU autotools
          Introduction
          libtool
          libltdl
          autoconf and autoheader
          automake and aclocal
        Using GNU gettext
          Basic usage
          Optional usage
          Handling message catalog directories
        Using perl
        Using X11
          X.Org components
          Ports that require Motif
          X11 fonts
          Getting fake DISPLAY using Xvfb
          Desktop entries
        Using GNOME
        Using KDE
          Variable definitions
          Ports that require Qt
          Component selection (Qt 4.x only)
          Additional considerations
        Using Java
          Variable definitions
          Building with Ant
          Best practices
        Web applications, Apache and PHP
          Apache
          Web applications
          PHP
          PEAR modules
        Using Python
        Using Tcl/Tk
        Using Emacs
        Using Ruby
        Using SDL
        Using wxWidgets
          Introduction
          Version selection
          Component selection
          Unicode
          Detecting installed versions
          Defined variables
          Processing in bsd.port.pre.mk
          Additional configure arguments
        Using Lua
          Introduction
          Version selection
          Component selection
          Detecting installed versions
          Defined variables
          Processing in bsd.port.pre.mk
        Using Xfce
        Using databases
        Starting and stopping services (rc scripts)
          Stopping services at deinstall
      Advanced pkg-plist practices
        Changing pkg-plist based on make variables
        Empty directories
          Cleaning up empty directories
          Creating empty directories
        Configuration files
        Dynamic vs. static package list
        Automated package list creation
      The pkg-* files
        pkg-message
        pkg-install
        pkg-deinstall
        pkg-req
        Changing the names of pkg-* files
        Making use of SUB_FILES and SUB_LIST
      Testing your port
        Running make describe
        Portlint
        Port Tools
        PREFIX and DESTDIR
        Tinderbox
      Upgrading
      Ports security
        Why security is so important
        Fixing security vulnerabilities
        Keeping the community informed
          The VuXML database
          A short introduction to VuXML
          Testing your changes to the VuXML database
      Dos and Don'ts
        Introduction
        WRKDIR
        WRKDIRPREFIX
        Differentiating operating systems and OS versions
        __FreeBSD_version values
        Writing something after bsd.port.mk
        Use the exec statement in wrapper scripts
        UIDs and GIDs
        Do things rationally
        Respect both CC and CXX
        Respect CFLAGS
        Threading libraries
        Feedback
        README.html
        Marking a port not installable with BROKEN, FORBIDDEN, or IGNORE
          Variables
          Implementation Notes
        Marking a port for removal with DEPRECATED or EXPIRATION_DATE
        Avoid use of the .error construct
        Usage of sysctl
        Rerolling distfiles
        Necessary workarounds
        Miscellanea
      A Sample Makefile
      Keeping Up
        FreshPorts
        The Web Interface to the Source Repository
        The FreeBSD Ports Mailing List
        The FreeBSD Port Building Cluster on pointyhat.FreeBSD.org
        The FreeBSD Port Distfile Survey
        The FreeBSD Ports Monitoring System
    PMake -- A Tutorial
      Copyright
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
      The Basics of PMake
        Dependency Lines
        Shell Commands
        Variables
          Local Variables
          Command-line Variables
          Global Variables
          Environment Variables
        Comments
        Parallelism
        Writing and Debugging a Makefile
        Invoking PMake
        Summary
      Short-cuts and Other Nice Things
        Transformation Rules
        Including Other Makefiles
        Saving Commands
        Target Attributes
        Special Targets
        Modifying Variable Expansion
        More Exercises
      PMake for Gods
        Search Paths
        Archives and Libraries
        On the Condition...
        A Shell is a Shell is a Shell
        Compatibility
        DEFCON 3 - Variable Expansion
        DEFCON 2 - The Number of the Beast
        DEFCON 1 - Imitation is the Not the Highest Form of Flattery
        The Way Things Work
      Answers to Exercises
      Glossary of Jargon
    Chapter 2 of "The Design and Implementation of the 4.4BSD Operating System"
      Copyright
      Table of Contents
      Design Overview of 4.4BSD
        Table of Contents
        BSD Facilities and the Kernel
          The Kernel
        Kernel Organization
        Kernel Services
        Process Management
          Signals
          Process Groups and Sessions
        Memory Management
          BSD Memory-Management Design Decisions
          Memory Management Inside the Kernel
        I/O System
          Descriptors and I/O
          Descriptor Management
          Devices
          Socket IPC
          Scatter/Gather I/O
          Multiple Filesystem Support
        Filesystems
        Filestores
        Network Filesystem
        Terminals
        Interprocess Communication
        Network Communication
        Network Implementation
        System Operation
        References
    Chapter 8 of "The FreeBSD Corporate Networker's Guide"
      Copyright
      Table of Contents
      Printserving
        Table of Contents
        PC printing history
        Printer communication protocols and hardware
          ASCII Printing Protocol
          PostScript Printing Protocol
          HPPCL Printing Protocol
        Network Printing Basics
          Printservers
          Printspools
        Setting up LPR on Windows clients
          Windows 3.1/Windows for Workgroups 3.11
          Installation of the Novell TCP/IP Winsock client
          Installation of the LPR client on 16-bit Windows with a Winsock installed
          Installation of LPR client on Windows 95/98
          Installation of LPR client on Windows NT
        Printing PostScript and DOS command files
        Checking PostScript Printer capabilities
        Setting up LPR/LPD on FreeBSD
          Creating the spools
          Additional spool capabilities
          Printing to hardware print server boxes or remote print servers
          Filters
        Printer Accounting
        Microsoft Networking Client printing with Samba
          Client access issues
          Printer entries in configuration files
          Browsing output
        Printing between NT Server/NetWare and FreeBSD.
        Printing from UNIX
          lp
          lpr
          Managing the UNIX Print Queue
        Advanced Printing Topics
          Ghostscript
          a2ps filter
        Miscellaneous
    FreeBSD Documentation Project Primer for New Contributors
      Copyright
      Table of Contents
      Preface
      Shell Prompts
      Typographic Conventions
      Notes, Tips, Important Information, Warnings, and Examples
      Acknowledgments
      Overview
        The FreeBSD Documentation Set
        Before You Start
        Quick Start
      Tools
        Mandatory Tools
          Software
          DTDs and Entities
          Stylesheets
        Optional Tools
          Software
      SGML Primer
        Overview
        Elements, Tags, and Attributes
          For You to Do...
        The DOCTYPE Declaration
          Formal Public Identifiers (FPIs)
          Alternatives to FPIs
        Escaping Back to SGML
        Comments
          For You to Do...
        Entities
          General Entities
          Parameter Entities
          For You to Do...
        Using Entities to Include Files
          Using General Entities to Include Files
          Using Parameter Entities to Include Files
          For You to Do...
        Marked Sections
          Marked Section Keywords
          For You to Do...
        Conclusion
      SGML Markup
        HTML
          Formal Public Identifier (FPI)
          Sectional Elements
          Block Elements
          In-line Elements
          Links
        DocBook
          FreeBSD Extensions
          Formal Public Identifier (FPI)
          Document Structure
          Block Elements
          In-line Elements
          Images
          Links
      * Stylesheets
        * DSSSL
        CSS
          The DocBook Documents
      Structuring Documents Under doc/
        The Top Level, doc/
        The lang.encoding/Directories
        Document Specific Information
          The Handbook
      The Documentation Build Process
        The FreeBSD Documentation Build Toolset
        Understanding Makefiles in the Documentation tree
          Subdirectory Makefiles
          Documentation Makefiles
        FreeBSD Documentation Project make includes
          doc.project.mk
          doc.subdir.mk
      The Website
        Preparation
          Simple Method: Using csup
          Advanced Method: Maintaining a Local CVS doc/www Repository
        Build the Web Pages from Scratch
        Install the Web Pages into Your Web Server
        Environment Variables
      Translations
      Writing Style
        Style Guide
          Letter Case
          Acronyms
          Indentation
          Tag Style
          White Space Changes
          Non-Breaking Space
        Word List
      Using sgml-mode with Emacs
      See Also
        The FreeBSD Documentation Project
        SGML
        HTML
        DocBook
        The Linux Documentation Project
      A.Examples
        A.1 DocBook book
        A.2 DocBook <article>
        A.3 Producing Formatted Output
          A.3.1 Using Jade
    PPP - Pedantic PPP Primer
      Table of Contents
      Overview
      Building the Local Area Network
        Typical Network Topology
        Assumptions about the Local Area Network
      FreeBSD System Configuration
        Table of Contents
        Verifying the FreeBSD Host Name
          Configuring the FreeBSD Host Name
        Verifying the Ethernet Interface Configuration
          Configuring your Ethernet Interface
        Enabling Packet Forwarding
        Creating the List of other LAN Hosts(/etc/hosts)
        Testing the FreeBSD system
          Verifying the operation of the loopback device
          Verifying the operation of the Ethernet Device
      Configuring the PPP Dial-Out Connection
        Table of Contents
        Backing up the original PPP configuration files
        Create your own PPP configuration files
          The '/etc/ppp/ppp.conf' file
          The '/etc/ppp/ppp.linkup' file
        IP Aliasing
      Configuring Windows Systems
        Configuring Windows 95
        Configuring Windows NT
        Configuring Windows for Workgroups
      Testing the Network
        Table of Contents
        Testing the Dial-Up link
        Testing the Ethernet LAN
      Exercises for the Interested Student
        Table of Contents
        Creating a mini-DNS system
          The /etc/namedb/named.boot file
          The /etc/namedb/mydomain.db file
          Starting the DNS Server
        Playing with PPP filters
    FreeBSD Installation Guide
      Table of Contents
      Home
        0.1 Table of Contents
        1.0 Limits of Liability and Disclaimer of Warranty
        1.1 Copyright
        1.1 Contact
      Getting Started
        1.2 Synopsis
        1.3 Installer Prerequisites
        1.4 Introduction
        2.0 Preparing PC for FBSD
        2.1 Incremental Install Method
        2.2 Minimum Hardware Requirements
      Installing
        3.0 Installing FBSD
        3.1 ISO CD images
        3.2 Using MS/Windows to get ISO CD images
        3.3 PC BIOS
        3.4 Starting Award BIOS setup utility
        3.5 First time changes to PC BIOS
        3.6 Loading FBSD to the Hard drive
      Post Install
        4.0 Post Install Configuration
        4.1 Root Account
        4.2 Gracefully Stopping your System
        4.3 Navigating the File System Directory Tree
        4.4 Command Line Path Prefix
        4.5 How to use the ee editor
        4.6 User Login Announcement
        4.7 Command Line History
        4.8 Keyboard F1 - F8 Keys
        4.9 FBSD Logs
        4.10 Enabling clear tmp directory
        4.11 Using mouse copy/paste function
          4.11.1 Enabling 2 button mouse copy/paste function
          4.11.3 Testing mouse copy/paste function
          4.11.4 Further customizing the mouse arrow pointer
        4.12 Scroll lock history
        4.13 Assigning a Host name to your FBSD system.
        4.14 Hosts File
        4.15 Screen Saver
        4.16 Basic EMAIL Information
        4.17 Time Zone setup
      Internet Access
        5.0 Accessing the Internet
        5.1 Cable TV access to the Internet
          5.1.1 Installing a PCI NIC
          5.1.2 Configuring a cable modem Internet connection
          5.1.3 Test your cable modem connectivity
        5.2 Products offered by the public telephone company
          5.2.1 Analog voice dial up service to your ISP
          5.2.2 Analog voice ISDN service
          5.2.3 Digital DSL service
          5.2.4 Digital leased lines
        5.3 Enabling voice phone Modems
          5.3.1 PCI Modem Types
          5.3.2 How to determine if FBSD found my modem at boot time
          5.3.4 External serial modems
          5.3.5 Determining if your external serial modem is connected to FBSD
          5.3.6 Internal PCI modem
          5.3.7 PCI Modem found as <unknown card>
          5.3.8 PCI Modem found and moved to sio4
          5.3.9 Determining if your internal PCI modem is connected to FBSD
        5.5 Internet access protocols
          5.5.0 User PPP
          5.5.1 User PPP NAT function
          5.5.2 Configuring User PPP for modem dial out to ISP
          5.5.3 Test User PPP dialisp
          5.5.4 Enable Dial ISP at boot time
          5.5.5 User PPP Filters
        5.6 Configuring User PPP to accept inbound modem calls
          5.6.1 Inbound ppp.conf statements
          5.6.2 Configure Incoming services
          5.6.3 Configure Modem to answer call using HAYES Commands
          5.6.4 How the Incoming call process works
          5.6.5 Testing Incoming call function
        5.7 User PPP Callback Feature
          5.7.1 Callback Feature on Incoming Calls
          5.7.2 Summary of how Incoming callback works
          5.7.3 ISP callback Feature
          5.7.4 Summary of how ISP callback works
        5.8 PPPoE ppp.conf statements for DSL connection
          5.9 User PPP Logs
          5.10 Stray irq 7 messages
      Network Security
        6.0 Network Security
          6.0.1 Firewalls
          6.0.2 Firewall Rule Set Types
          6.0.3 Firewall Software Applications
        6.1 IPFILTER (IPF) Firewall
          6.1.1 Enabling IPF
          6.1.2 Kernel options.
          6.1.3 RC.CONF Options
        6.2 IPF COMMAND
        6.3 IPFSTAT Command
        6.4 IPMON Command
          6.4.1 IPMON Logging
          6.4.2 Format of Logged Messages
        6.5 Building Rule Script
        6.6.IPF Rule Sets
          6.6.1 Rule Syntax
          6.6.2 Stateful Filtering
        6.7 Inclusive Rule set Example
        6.8 NAT Explanation
          6.8.1 IPNAT Command
          6.8.2 NAT Rules
          6.8.3 How NAT works
          6.8.4 Enabling Nat
          6.8.5 Nat for very Large Lan
          6.8.6 Directing traffic to Lan Servers
          6.8.7 FTP Special Nat Handling
          6.8.8 FTP Filter rules
        6.9 IPFIREWALL (IPFW) Firewall
          6.9.1 Enabling IPFW
          6.9.2 Kernel Options
          6.9.3 RC.CONF Options
          6.9.4 IPFW Command
          6.9.4 IPFW Rule Sets
          6.9.5 Rule Syntax
          6.9.6 Stateful Rule Option
          6.9.7 Logging Firewall Messages
          6.9.8 Building Rule Script
          6.9.9 Stateful Rule Set
          6.9.10 Example Inclusive Rule Set
        6.10 Stateful + NATD Rule Set
          6.11 OpenBSD's Packet Filter Firewall
          6.11.1 Enabling PF
          6.11.2 Kernel Options
          6.11.3 RC.CONF Statements
          6.11.4 PFCTL Command
          6.11.5 PF Rule Sets
          6.11.6 Rule Syntax
          6.11.7 Stateful Filtering
          6.11.8 Nat Explanation
          6.11.9 Logging
        6.12 Inclusive Rule set Example
        6.13 Defending Against Attacks
          6.13.1 Know Who Your Attacker is
          6.13.2 Stopping Login Attacks
          6.13.3 Stopping Web Server Attacks
        6.14 Example SSH setup
          6.14.1 Example Environment Description
          6.14.2 Host Setup
          6.14.3 FBSD-client Setup
          6.14.4 Using Midnight Commander for SFTP
          6.14.5 Win-client Setup
          6.14.6 Putty Setup
          6.14.7 WinSC3 Setup
          6.14.8 Fraudulent SSH Login Attempts
      Local Area Network
        7.0 Setting up Local Area Network (LAN)
        7.1 Home User LANs
        7.2 Topography of a LAN
        7.3 Installing the LAN
        7.4 LAN private IP address
        7.5 Manually Configuring the Gateway
        7.6 Manually configuring FBSD LAN PCs
        7.7 Manually configuring MS/Windows LAN PCs
      DHCP Server
        8.0 DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
        8.1 What function does DHCP perform?
        8.2 DHCP Server
        8.3 How DHCP Works
        8.4 DHCP Configuration Instructions
        8.5 Testing the DHCPD Daemon
        8.6 FBSD as a DHCP Client
      System Security
        9.0 FBSD System Security
        9.1 Network packet Security options
          9.1.1 Sysctl.conf Security Knobs
          9.1.2 Secure rc.conf
          9.1.3 Secure Kernel Source
        9.2 Security Paranoia
        9.3 Highest Level of Security Paranoia
          9.3.1 Jail facility
          9.3.2 rc.conf securelevel option
          9.3.3 Encrypting Disk Partitions
      FBSD Basics
        10.0 FBSD Basics
        10.1 Introduction to the manual documentation
        10.2 Basic FBSD Commands you will need to know
        10.3 Controlling what messages go to what syslog files
          10.3.1 LOG rotation and archiving
        10.4 Setting System Date and Time
        10.5 Capturing screen content to file
        10.6 Cron Scheduling Application & System Management Reports
        10.7 Using the Floppy drive
          10.7.1 To format a FBSD file system floppy disk
          10.7.2 To create /a floppy mount point
          10.7.3 To mount floppy drive
          10.7.4 To test floppy drive
          10.7.5 To remove floppy from drive
          10.7.6 To mount MS/Windows formatted floppy disk
          10.7.7 Easier way to mount MS/Windows floppies
          10.7.8 To test auto floppy drive mount
        10.8 Mounting Cdrom
        10.9 User Account Admin
          10.9.1 Configure the pw Command
          10.9.2 Examples of pw command usage
          10.9.3 pw command embedded in a script
          10.9.4 passwd command
          10.9.5 chpass command
          10.9.6 Super User
        10.10 Permissions
          10.10.1 Managing Permissions
          10.10 2 Change file permissions
          10.10.3 Change file owner
          10.10.4 Change file group
        10.11 Managing your configuration changes
          10.11.1 Personal Scripts
          10.11.2 Script to Backup /custom to floppy
          10.11.3 Script to Restore floppy to /custom
        10.12 Burncd and .iso files
          10.12.1 ISO FTP download script
          10.12.2 Burncd command
        10.13 Technical Support
        10.14 Boot Time Splash Screen
          10.14.1 Splash Screen Function
          10.14.2 Enabling the Splash Screen Function
          10.14.3 Sample Splash Screen
      Email Services
        11.0 Email Service
          11.1 Commercial, non-Commercial sendmail Users
        11.2 Configure Sendmail to send enail through your ISP
        11.3 POP3 Email Server
        11.4 Qpopper Application
          11.4.1 Qpopper Installation Instructions
        11.5 Configuring Microsoft Outlook for FBSD mail service
        11.6 Fetchmail / Getting your ISP mail to FBSD
          11.6.1 Fetchmail Installation Instructions
          11.6.2 Testing Fetchmail
          11.6.3 Boot Time Enable
        11.8 Email Reading
          11.8.1 Using the mail command
          11.8.2 Checking your mail
          11.8.3 Creating / sending your mail
          11.8.4 Mbox File
          11.8.5 Mail sub-commands
          11.8.6 Replying to or creating new mail
        11.9 Email Vacation Auto Responder
          11.9.1 How vacation process works
          11.9.2 .vacation msg file
          11.9.3 .vacation.db File
          11.9.4 .forward File
          11.9.5 SYNTAX of the command
          11.9.6 Procedure to Activate
      Ports & Packages
        12.0 Ports & Packages
        12.1 Determining what to install
        12.2 Finding the Application Download Name
        12.3 Package Benefits
        12.4 Ports Benefits
        12.5 Using the Package Collection
          12.5.1 Alternate Access Method to package Collection
        12.6 Using the Port Collection
          12.6.1 Downloading make files for single port
          12.6.2 Fetch Port Config Files Script
        12.7 Ports/Package Install History Database Commands
        12.8 Port Make Commands
      Kernel Customizing
        13.0 Kernel Customizing
        13.1 Kernel Compile Steps
        13.2 Managing Multiple Kernels
        13.4 Replacing /kernel with saved /kernel
        13.5 Fix System Boot problems
        13.6 Single user mode
        13.7 Forgot Root password
        13.8 New Kernel won't boot
      FTP & Telnet
        14.0 FTP & Telnet
        14.1 Inetd, FBSD's Super server
        14.2 Configure Insecure FTP
        14.3 Anonymous FTP Server
        14.4 Quotas
        14.5 Telnet
        14.6 Secure FTP & Telnet
      Masquerading as Commercial User
        15.0 Masquerading as a Commercial User
        15.2 Verifying ports 25 & 80 are open
        15.3 Masquerading Using ZoneEdit
        15.4 Configurating ZoneEdit
  Articles
    List of eBooks
    The Roadmap for 5-STABLE
      Table of Contents
      Introduction and Background
      Major issues
      Requirements for 5-STABLE
      Post RELENG_5 direction
    Why you should use a BSD style license for your Open Source Project
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
      Very Brief Open Source History
      Unix from a BSD Licensing Perspective
      The Current State of FreeBSD and BSD Licenses
      The origins of the GPL
      The origins of Linux and the LGPL
      Open Source licenses and the Orphaning Problem
      What a license cannot do
      GPL Advantages and Disadvantages
      BSD Advantages
      Specific Recommendations for using a BSD license
      Conclusion
      Addenda
    Building Products with FreeBSD
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
      FreeBSD as a set of building blocks
      Collaborating with FreeBSD
      Conclusion
      Bibliography
    Argentina.com : A Case Study
      Table of Contents
      Overview
      The Challenge
      The FreeBSD solution
      Results
    Integration of Check Point VPN-1/Firewall-1 and FreeBSD IPsec
      Table of Contents
      Prerequisites
      Firewall-1 Network Object Configuration
      Firewall-1 VPN Rule Configuration
      FreeBSD VPN Policy Configuration
      FreeBSD Racoon Configuration
      Starting the VPN
      References
    Committer's Guide
      Table of Contents
      Administrative Details
      Commit Bit Types
      CVS Operations
      Conventions and Traditions
      Preferred License for New Files
      Developer Relations
      GNATS
      Who's Who
      SSH Quick-Start Guide
      The FreeBSD Committers' Big List of Rules
      Support for Multiple Architectures
      Ports Specific FAQ
      Perks of the Job
      Miscellaneous Questions
    Console Server Tutorial
      Table of Contents
      The Problem
      Possible Solutions
      Our Solution
      Setting Up The Server
      Cabling
      On Sun Systems And Break
      Using a Serial Console on FreeBSD
      Security Implications
      On Conserver Versions
      Links
      Manual Pages
    Contributing to FreeBSD
      Table of Contents
      What Is Needed
      How to Contribute
    Contributing to the FreeBSD Ports Collection
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
      What you can do to help
      Creating a new port
      Adopting an unmaintained port
      The challenge for port maintainers
      Finding and fixing a broken port
      When to call it quits
      Resources for ports maintainers and contributors
    Contributors to FreeBSD
      Table of Contents
      Donors Gallery
      The FreeBSD Core Team
      Other FreeBSD Teams
      Miscellaneous Hats
      FreeBSD Release Engineering Teams
      The FreeBSD Developers
      The FreeBSD Documentation Project
      Who is Responsible for What
      Core Team Alumni
      Development Team Alumni
      Derived Software Contributors
      Additional FreeBSD Contributors
      386BSD Patch Kit Patch Contributors
    Setting up a CVS repository - the FreeBSD way
      Introduction
      First setup
      FreeBSD specific setup
    CVSup Advanced Points
      Table of Contents
      Preface
      Introduction
      A useful python script: cvsupchk
      Examples of more advanced source management
    Dialup firewalling with FreeBSD
      Table of Contents
      Preface
      Kernel Options
      Changing /etc/rc.conf to load the firewall
      Enable PPP's network address translation
      The rule set for the firewall
      Questions
    Diskless X Server: a how to guide
      Table of Contents
      Creating the boot floppy (On the diskless system)
      Getting the network boot programs (On the server)
      Determine which program to run (On the diskless system)
      Booting across the network
      Allowing systems to boot across the network (On the server)
    The Euro symbol on FreeBSD
      The Euro in a nutshell
      A general remark
      The console
      Modifying X11
      Open problems
    Explaining BSD
      What is BSD?
      What, a real UNIX?
      Why is BSD not better known?
      Comparing BSD and Linux
    FreeBSD From Scratch
      Introduction
      Why would I (not) want FreeBSD From Scratch?
      Prerequisites
      Stage One: System Installation
      Stage Two: Ports Installation
      Stage Three
      Limitations
      The Files
    Filtering Bridges
      Why use a filtering bridge?
      How to Install
      Final Preparation
      Enabling the Bridge
      Configuring The Firewall
      Contributors
    Fonts and FreeBSD
      Introduction
      Basic terminology
      What font formats can I use?
      Setting a virtual console to 80x60 line mode
      Using type 1 fonts with X11
      Using type 1 fonts with Ghostscript
      Using type 1 fonts with Groff
      Converting TrueType fonts to a groff/postscript format for groff
      Can TrueType fonts be used with other programs?
      Where can additional fonts be obtained?
      Additional questions
    Formatting Media For Use With FreeBSD
      Introduction & Definitions
      Formatting Disks in Dedicated Mode
      Making Compatibility Mode Disks
      Other Disk Operations
      Credits
    How to get best results from the FreeBSD-questions mailing list
      Introduction
      How to subscribe to FreeBSD-questions
      How to unsubscribe from FreeBSD-questions
      Should I ask -questions or -hackers?
      Before submitting a question
      How to submit a question
      How to follow up to a question
      How to answer a question
    Working with Hats
      Working with Hats
    Mirroring FreeBSD
      Contact Information
      Requirements for FreeBSD mirrors
      How to mirror FreeBSD
      Where to mirror from
      Official Mirrors
      Some statistics from mirror sites
    Independent Verification of IPsec Functionality in FreeBSD
      The Problem
      The Solution
      The Experiment
      Caveat
      IPsec---Definition
      Installing IPsec
      src/sys/i386/conf/KERNELNAME
      Maurer's Universal Statistical Test (for block size=8 bits)
    Java and Jakarta Tomcat on FreeBSD
      Introduction
      The Java- Environment
      Jakarta Tomcat Setup
      Reference
    FreeBSD on Laptops
      Xorg
      XFree86O
      Modems
      PCMCIA (PC Card) devices
      Power management
    FreeBSD: An Open Source Alternative to Linux
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
      FreeBSD Features
      Security
      Support
      Advantages to Choosing FreeBSD
      Conclusion
      Addenda
    Frequently Asked Questions About The FreeBSD Mailing Lists
      Introduction
      Mailing List Etiquette
      Recurring Topics On The Mailing Lists
      What Is A 'Bikeshed'?
      Acknowledgments
    An MH Primer
      Introduction
      Reading Mail
      Folders and Mail Searching
      Sending Mail
    Installing and Using FreeBSD With Other Operating Systems
      Overview
      Overview of Boot Managers
      A Typical Installation
      Special Considerations
      Examples
      Other Sources of Help
      Technical Details
    Introduction to NanoBSD
      Table of Contents
      Introduction to NanoBSD
      NanoBSD Howto
    For People New to Both FreeBSD and Unix
      Logging in and Getting Out
      Adding A User with Root Privileges
      Looking Around
      Getting Help and Information
      Editing Text
      Printing Files from DOS
      Other Useful Commands
      Next Steps
      Your Working Environment
      Other
      Comments Welcome
    Perforce in FreeBSD Development
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
      Getting Started
      Clients
      Syncing
      Branches
      Integrations
      Submit
      Editing
      Changes, Descriptions, and History
      Diffs
      Adding and Removing Files
      Working with diffs
      Renaming files
      Interactions between FreeBSD CVS and Perforce
      Offline Operation
      Notes for Google Summer of Code
    Pluggable Authentication Modules
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
      Terms and conventions
      PAM Essentials
      PAM Configuration
      FreeBSD PAM Modules
      PAM Application Programming
      PAM Module Programming
      A. Sample PAM Application
      B. Sample PAM Module
      C. Sample PAM Conversation Function
      Further Reading
    Package Building Procedures
      Copyright
      Table of Contents
      Introduction and Conventions
      Build Client Management
      Chroot Build Environment Setup
      Starting the Build
      Anatomy of a Build
      Interrupting a Build
      Monitoring the Build
      Release Builds
      Uploading Packages
      Experimental Patches Builds
    Problem Report Handling Guidelines
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
      Problem Report Life-cycle
      Problem Report State
      Types of Problem Reports
      Further Reading
    Writing FreeBSD Problem Reports
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
      When to submit a problem report
      Preparations
      Writing the problem report
      Follow-up
      If you are having problems
      Further Reading
    FreeBSD Jumpstart Guide
      Introduction
      Server Configuration
      Bootstrap Setup
      Install Setup
      Custom Post-Install Package
    Practical rc.d scripting in BSD
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
      Outlining the task
      A dummy script
      A configurable dummy script
      Startup and shutdown of a simple daemon
      Startup and shutdown of an advanced daemon
      Connecting a script to the rc.d framework
      Further reading
    Using Greylist with FreeBSD
      Basic Configuration
    FreeBSD Release Engineering
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
      Release Process
      Release Building
      Distribution
      Extensibility
      Lessons Learned from FreeBSD 4.4
      Future Directions
      Acknowledgements
      References
    FreeBSD Release Engineering for Third Party Software Packages
      Building packages from the Ports Collection
      The Package Split
    Serial and UART Tutorial
      The UART: What it is and how it works
      Configuring the sio driver
      Configuring the cy driver
      Configuring the si driver
    FreeBSD and Solid State Devices
      Table of Contents
      Solid State Disk Devices
      Kernel Options
      rc.diskless and Read-Only Filesystems
      Building a File System From Scratch
      Building a kern.flp Installation Floppy with the fla Driver
      System Strategies for Small and Read Only Environments
    Storage Devices
      Using ESDI hard disks
      What is SCSI?
      * Disk/tape controllers
      Hard drives
      Tape drives
      CDROM drives
    Choosing the FreeBSD Version That Is Right For You
      Table of Contents
      Background
      Release Scheduling In The Past
      Release Scheduling Goals Going Forward
      How Do These Factors Affect My Decision?
      Conclusion
    Bootstrapping Vinum: A Foundation for Reliable Servers
      Introduction
      Bootstrapping Phases
      Where to Go from Here?
      Failure Scenarios
      bootvinum Perl Script
      Manual Vinum Bootstrapping
      Acknowledgements
    Design elements of the FreeBSD VM system
      Introduction
      VM Objects
      SWAP Layers
      When to free a page
      Pre-Faulting and Zeroing Optimizations
      Page Table Optimizations
      Page Coloring
      Conclusion
      Bonus QA session by Allen Briggs briggs@ninthwonder.com
    ZIP Drives
      ZIP Drive Basics
      Parallel ZIP: The vpo Driver
      Mounting ZIP disks
    Writing a GEOM Class
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
      Preliminaries
      On FreeBSD kernel programming
      On GEOM programming
    Creating a Software Testing Environment Using FreeBSD
      Table of Contents
      Overview
      The Challenge
      The FreeBSD Solution
      Conclusion
  FreeBSD Releases
    FreeBSD 7.1-RELEASE Release Notes
      Introduction
      What's New
        Security Advisories
        Kernel Changes
          Boot Loader Changes
          Hardware Support
          Network Protocols
          Disks and Storage
          File Systems
        Userland Changes
          /etc/rc.d Scripts
        Contributed Software
          Release Engineering and Integration
      Upgrading from previous releases of FreeBSD
    FreeBSD 7.1-RELEASE Hardware Notes
      Introduction
      Supported Processors and System Boards
        amd64
        i386
        ia64
        pc98
        powerpc
        sparc64
      Supported Devices
        Disk Controllers
        Ethernet Interfaces
        Token Ring Interfaces
        FDDI Interfaces
        ATM Interfaces
        Wireless Network Interfaces
        Miscellaneous Networks
        ISDN Interfaces
        Serial Interfaces
        Sound Devices
        Camera and Video Capture Devices
        USB Devices
        IEEE 1394 (Firewire) Devices
        Bluetooth Devices
        Cryptographic Accelerators
        Miscellaneous
    FreeBSD 7.1-RELEASE Errata
  Fultus Book Superstore - FreeBSD
  Books
    List of eBooks
    A project model for the FreeBSD Project
      Table of Contents
      Foreword
      Overview
      Definitions
        Table of Contents
        Activity
        Process
        Hat
        Outcome
        FreeBSD
      Organisational structure
      Methodology model
        Development model
        Release branches
        Model summary
      Hats
        General Hats
        Official Hats
        Process dependent hats
      Processes
        Adding new and removing old committers
        Adding/Removing an official CVSup Mirror
        Committing code
        Core election
        Development of new features
        Maintenance
        Problem reporting
        Reacting to misbehaviour
        Release engineering
      Tools
        Concurrent Versions System (CVS)
        CVSup
        GNATS
        Mailman
        Perforce
        Pretty Good Privacy
        Secure Shell
      Sub-projects
        The Ports Subproject
        The FreeBSD Documentation Project
      References
    FreeBSD FAQ
      Copyright
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
      Documentation and Support
      Installation
      Hardware Compatibility
        General
        Memory
        Architectures and Processors
        Hard Drives, Tape Drives, and CD and DVD Drives
        Keyboards and Mice
        Networking and Serial Devices
        Sound Devices
        Other Hardware
      Troubleshooting
      Commercial Applications
      User Applications
      Kernel Configuration
      Disks, File Systems, and Boot Loaders
      System Administration
      The X Window System and Virtual Consoles
      Networking
      Security
      PPP
      Serial Communications
      Miscellaneous Questions
      The FreeBSD Funnies
      Advanced Topics
      Acknowledgments
      Bibliography
    FreeBSD Handbook
      Copyright
      Table of Contents
      Preface
      Getting Started
        Introduction
          Synopsis
          Welcome to FreeBSD!
          About the FreeBSD Project
        Installing FreeBSD
          Synopsis
          Hardware Requirements
          Pre-installation Tasks
          Starting the Installation
          Introducing Sysinstall
          Allocating Disk Space
          Choosing What to Install
          Choosing Your Installation Media
          Committing to the Installation
          Post-installation
          Troubleshooting
          Advanced Installation Guide
          Preparing Your Own Installation Media
        UNIX Basics
          Synopsis
          Virtual Consoles and Terminals
          Permissions
          Directory Structure
          Disk Organization
          Mounting and Unmounting File Systems
          Processes
          Daemons, Signals, and Killing Processes
          Shells
          Text Editors
          Devices and Device Nodes
          Binary Formats
          For More Information
        Installing Applications: Packages and Ports
          Synopsis
          Overview of Software Installation
          Finding Your Application
          Using the Packages System
          Using the Ports Collection
          Post-installation Activities
          Dealing with Broken Ports
        The X Window System
          Synopsis
          Understanding X
          Installing X11
          X11 Configuration
          Using Fonts in X11
          The X Display Manager
          Desktop Environments
      Common Tasks
        Desktop Applications
          Synopsis
          Browsers
          Productivity
          Document Viewers
          Finance
          Summary
        Multimedia
          Synopsis
          Setting Up the Sound Card
          MP3 Audio
          Video Playback
          Setting Up TV Cards
          Image Scanners
        Configuring the FreeBSD Kernel
          Synopsis
          Why Build a Custom Kernel?
          Finding the System Hardware
          Kernel Drivers, Subsystems, and Modules
          Building and Installing a Custom Kernel
          The Configuration File
          If Something Goes Wrong
        Printing
          Synopsis
          Introduction
          Basic Setup
          Advanced Printer Setup
          Using Printers
          Alternatives to the Standard Spooler
          Troubleshooting
        Linux Binary Compatibility
          Synopsis
          Installation
          Installing Mathematica
          Installing Maple
          Installing MATLAB
          Installing Oracle
          Installing SAP R/3
          Advanced Topics
      System Administration
        Configuration and Tuning
          Synopsis
          Initial Configuration
          Core Configuration
          Application Configuration
          Starting Services
          Configuring the cron Utility
          Using rc under FreeBSD
          Setting Up Network Interface Cards
          Virtual Hosts
          Configuration Files
          Tuning with sysctl
          Tuning Disks
          Tuning Kernel Limits
          Adding Swap Space
          Power and Resource Management
          Using and Debugging FreeBSD ACPI
        The FreeBSD Booting Process
          Synopsis
          The Booting Problem
          The Boot Manager and Boot Stages
          Kernel Interaction During Boot
          Device Hints
          Init: Process Control Initialization
          Shutdown Sequence
        Users and Basic Account Management
          Synopsis
          Introduction
          The Superuser Account
          System Accounts
          User Accounts
          Modifying Accounts
          Limiting Users
          Groups
        Security
          Synopsis
          Introduction
          Securing FreeBSD
          DES, Blowfish, MD5, and Crypt
          One-time Passwords
          TCP Wrappers
          KerberosIV
          Kerberos5
          OpenSSL
          VPN over IPsec
          OpenSSH
          File System Access Control Lists
          Monitoring Third Party Security Issues
          FreeBSD Security Advisories
          Process Accounting
        Jails
          Synopsis
          Terms Related to Jails
          Introduction
          Creating and Controlling Jails
          Fine Tuning and Administration
          Application of Jails
        Mandatory Access Control
          Synopsis
          Key Terms in this Chapter
          Explanation of MAC
          Understanding MAC Labels
          Planning the Security Configuration
          Module Configuration
          The MAC seeotheruids Module
          The MAC bsdextended Module
          The MAC ifoff Module
          The MAC portacl Module
          The MAC partition Module
          The MAC Multi-Level Security Module
          The MAC Biba Module
          The MAC LOMAC Module
          Nagios in a MAC Jail
          User Lock Down
          Troubleshooting the MAC Framework
        Security Event Auditing
          Synopsis
          Key Terms in this Chapter
          Installing Audit Support
          Audit Configuration
          Administering the Audit Subsystem
        Storage
          Synopsis
          Device Names
          Adding Disks
          RAID
          USB Storage Devices
          Creating and Using Optical Media (CDs)
          Creating and Using Optical Media (DVDs)
          Creating and Using Floppy Disks
          Creating and Using Data Tapes
          Backups to Floppies
          Backup Strategies
          Backup Basics
          Network, Memory, and File-Backed File Systems
          File System Snapshots
          File System Quotas
          Encrypting Disk Partitions
          Encrypting Swap Space
        GEOM: Modular Disk Transformation Framework
          Synopsis
          GEOM Introduction
          RAID0 - Striping
          RAID1 - Mirroring
          GEOM Gate Network Devices
          Labeling Disk Devices
          UFS Journaling Through GEOM
        File Systems Support
          Synopsis
          The Z File System
        The Vinum Volume Manager
          Synopsis
          Disks Are Too Small
          Access Bottlenecks
          Data Integrity
          Vinum Objects
          Some Examples
          Object Naming
          Configuring Vinum
          Using Vinum for the Root Filesystem
        Virtualization
          Synopsis
          FreeBSD as a Guest OS
          FreeBSD as a Host OS
        Localization - I18N/L10N Usage and Setup
          Synopsis
          The Basics
          Using Localization
          Compiling I18N Programs
          Localizing FreeBSD to Specific Languages
        Updating and Upgrading FreeBSD
          Synopsis
          FreeBSD Update
          Portsnap: A Ports Collection Update Tool
          Updating the Documentation Set
          Tracking a Development Branch
          Synchronizing Your Source
          Rebuilding world
          Tracking for Multiple Machines
        DTrace
          Synopsis
          Implementation Differences
          Enabling DTrace Support
          Using DTrace
          The D Language
      Network Communication
        Serial Communications
          Synopsis
          Introduction
          Terminals
          Dial-in Service
          Dial-out Service
          Setting Up the Serial Console
        PPP and SLIP
          Synopsis
          Using User PPP
          Using Kernel PPP
          Troubleshooting PPP Connections
          Using PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE)
          Using PPP over ATM (PPPoA)
          Using SLIP
        Electronic Mail
          Synopsis
          Using Electronic Mail
          sendmail Configuration
          Changing Your Mail Transfer Agent
          Troubleshooting
          Advanced Topics
          SMTP with UUCP
          Setting Up to Send Only
          Using Mail with a Dialup Connection
          SMTP Authentication
          Mail User Agents
          Using fetchmail
          Using procmail
        Network Servers
          Synopsis
          The inetd Super-Server
          Network File System (NFS)
          Network Information System (NIS/YP)
          Automatic Network Configuration (DHCP)
          Domain Name System (DNS)
          Apache HTTP Server
          File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
          File and Print Services for Microsoft Windows clients (Samba)
          Clock Synchronization with NTP
          Remote Host Logging with syslogd
        Firewalls
          Introduction
          Firewall Concepts
          Firewall Packages
          The OpenBSD Packet Filter (PF) and ALTQ
          The IPFILTER (IPF) Firewall
          IPFW
        Advanced Networking
          Synopsis
          Gateways and Routes
          Wireless Networking
          Bluetooth
          Bridging
          Link Aggregation and Failover
          Diskless Operation
          ISDN
          Network Address Translation
          Parallel Line IP (PLIP)
          IPv6
          Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
          Common Access Redundancy Protocol (CARP)
      Appendices
        A. Obtaining FreeBSD
          CDROM and DVD Publishers
          FTP Sites
          BitTorrent
          Anonymous CVS
          Using CTM
          Using CVSup
          CVS Tags
          AFS Sites
          rsync Sites
        B. Bibliography
          Books & Magazines Specific to FreeBSD
          Users' Guides
          Administrators' Guides
          Programmers' Guides
          Operating System Internals
          Security Reference
          Hardware Reference
          UNIX History
          Magazines and Journals
        C. Resources on the Internet
          Mailing Lists
          Usenet Newsgroups
          World Wide Web Servers
          Email Addresses
        D. PGP Keys
          Officers
          Core Team Members
          Developers
      FreeBSD Glossary
      Index
      Colophon
    FreeBSD Developer's Handbook
      Copyright
      Table of Contents
      Basics
        Introduction
          Developing on FreeBSD
          The BSD Vision
          Architectural Guidelines
          The Layout of /usr/src
        Programming Tools
          Synopsis
          Introduction
          Introduction to Programming
          Compiling with cc
          Make
          Debugging
          Using Emacs as a Development Environment
          Further Reading
        Secure Programming
          Synopsis
          Secure Design Methodology
          Buffer Overflows
          SetUID issues
          Limiting your program's environment
          Trust
          Race Conditions
        Localization and Internationalization - L10N and I18N
          Programming I18N Compliant Applications
        Source Tree Guidelines and Policies
          MAINTAINER on Makefiles
          Contributed Software
          Encumbered Files
          Shared Libraries
        Regression and Performance Testing
          Micro Benchmark Checklist
      Interprocess Communication
        Sockets
          Synopsis
          Networking and Diversity
          Protocols
          The Sockets Model
          Essential Socket Functions
          Helper Functions
          Concurrent Servers
        IPv6 Internals
          IPv6/IPsec Implementation
      Kernel
        Building and Installing a FreeBSD Kernel
          Building a Kernel the Traditional Way
          Building a Kernel the New Way
        Kernel Debugging
          Obtaining a Kernel Crash Dump
          Debugging a Kernel Crash Dump with kgdb
          Debugging a Crash Dump with DDD
          Post-Mortem Analysis of a Dump
          On-Line Kernel Debugging Using DDB
          On-Line Kernel Debugging Using Remote GDB
          Debugging Loadable Modules Using GDB
          Debugging a Console Driver
          Debugging Deadlocks
          Glossary of Kernel Options for Debugging
      Architectures
        x86 Assembly Language Programming
          Synopsis
          The Tools
          System Calls
          Return Values
          Creating Portable Code
          Our First Program
          Writing UNIX Filters
          Buffered Input and Output
          Command Line Arguments
          UNIX Environment
          Working with Files
          One-Pointed Mind
          Using the FPU
          Caveats
          Acknowledgements
      Appendices
      Bibliography
      Index
    FreeBSD Architecture Handbook
      Copyright
      Table of Contents
      Kernel
        Table of Contents
        Bootstrapping and kernel initialization
          Table of Contents
          Synopsis
          Overview
          BIOS POST
          boot0 stage
          boot2 stage
          loader stage
          Kernel initialization
        Locking Notes
          Table of Contents
          Mutexes
          Shared Exclusive Locks
          Atomically Protected Variables
        Kernel Objects
          Table of Contents
          Terminology
          Kobj Operation
          Using Kobj
        The Jail Subsystem
          Table of Contents
          Architecture
          Restrictions
        The Sysinit Framework
          Table of Contents
          Terminology
          SYSINIT Operation
          Using SYSINIT
        The TrustedBSD MAC Framework
          Table of Contents
          MAC Documentation Copyright
          Synopsis
          Introduction
          Policy Background
          MAC Framework Kernel Architecture
          MAC Policy Architecture
          MAC Policy Entry Point Reference
          Userland Architecture
          Conclusion
        Virtual Memory System
          Table of Contents
          Management of physical memory--vm_page_t
          The unified buffer cache--vm_object_t
          Filesystem I/O--struct buf
          Mapping Page Tables--vm_map_t, vm_entry_t
          KVM Memory Mapping
          Tuning the FreeBSD VM system
        SMPng Design Document
          Table of Contents
          Introduction
          Basic Tools and Locking Fundamentals
          General Architecture and Design
          Specific Locking Strategies
          Implementation Notes
          Miscellaneous Topics
          Glossary
      Device Drivers
        Table of Contents
        Writing FreeBSD Device Drivers
          Table of Contents
          Introduction
          Dynamic Kernel Linker Facility - KLD
          Accessing a device driver
          Character Devices
          Block Devices (Are Gone)
          Network Drivers
        ISA device drivers
          Table of Contents
          Synopsis
          Basic information
          Device_t pointer
          Configuration file and the order of identifying and probing during auto-configuration
          Resources
          Bus memory mapping
          DMA
          xxx_isa_probe
          xxx_isa_attach
          xxx_isa_detach
          xxx_isa_shutdown
          xxx_intr
        PCI Devices
          Table of Contents
          Probe and Attach
          Bus Resources
        Common Access Method SCSI Controllers
          Table of Contents
          Synopsis
          General architecture
          Polling
          Asynchronous Events
          Interrupts
          Errors Summary
          Timeout Handling
        USB Devices
          Table of Contents
          Introduction
          Host Controllers
          USB Device Information
          Device probe and attach
          USB Drivers Protocol Information
        Newbus
          Table of Contents
          Device Drivers
          Overview of Newbus
          Newbus API
        Sound subsystem
          Table of Contents
          Introduction
          Files
          Probing, attaching, etc.
          Interfaces
        PC Card
          Adding a device
      Appendices
        Bibliography
      Index
    FreeBSD Porter's Handbook
      Copyright
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
      Making a port yourself
      Quick Porting
        Writing the Makefile
        Writing the description files
          pkg-descr
          pkg-plist
        Creating the checksum file
        Testing the port
        Checking your port with portlint
        Submitting the port
      Slow Porting
        How things work
        Getting the original sources
        Modifying the port
        Patching
        Configuring
        Handling user input
      Configuring the Makefile
        The original source
        Naming
          PORTNAME and PORTVERSION
          PORTREVISION and PORTEPOCH
          PKGNAMEPREFIX and PKGNAMESUFFIX
          LATEST_LINK
          Package Naming Conventions
        Categorization
          CATEGORIES
          Current list of categories
          Choosing the right category
          Proposing a new category
          Proposing reorganizing all the categories
        The distribution files
          DISTVERSION/DISTNAME
          MASTER_SITES
          EXTRACT_SUFX
          DISTFILES
          EXTRACT_ONLY
          PATCHFILES
          Multiple distribution files or patches from different sites and subdirectories (MASTER_SITES:n)
          DIST_SUBDIR
          ALWAYS_KEEP_DISTFILES
        MAINTAINER
        COMMENT
        Dependencies
          LIB_DEPENDS
          RUN_DEPENDS
          BUILD_DEPENDS
          FETCH_DEPENDS
          EXTRACT_DEPENDS
          PATCH_DEPENDS
          USE_*
          Minimal version of a dependency
          Notes on dependencies
          Circular dependencies are fatal
        MASTERDIR
        Manpages
        Info files
        Makefile Options
          Knobs
          OPTIONS
          Feature auto-activation
        Specifying the working directory
          WRKSRC
          NO_WRKSUBDIR
        CONFLICTS
        Installing files
          INSTALL_* macros
          Stripping Binaries
          Installing a whole tree of files
          Install additional documentation
          Subdirectories under PREFIX
      Special considerations
        Shared Libraries
        Ports with distribution restrictions
          NO_PACKAGE
          NO_CDROM
          NOFETCHFILES
          RESTRICTED
          RESTRICTED_FILES
        Building mechanisms
          make, gmake, and imake
          configure script
          Using scons
        Using GNU autotools
          Introduction
          libtool
          libltdl
          autoconf and autoheader
          automake and aclocal
        Using GNU gettext
          Basic usage
          Optional usage
          Handling message catalog directories
        Using perl
        Using X11
          X.Org components
          Ports that require Motif
          X11 fonts
          Getting fake DISPLAY using Xvfb
          Desktop entries
        Using GNOME
        Using KDE
          Variable definitions
          Ports that require Qt
          Component selection (Qt 4.x only)
          Additional considerations
        Using Java
          Variable definitions
          Building with Ant
          Best practices
        Web applications, Apache and PHP
          Apache
          Web applications
          PHP
          PEAR modules
        Using Python
        Using Tcl/Tk
        Using Emacs
        Using Ruby
        Using SDL
        Using wxWidgets
          Introduction
          Version selection
          Component selection
          Unicode
          Detecting installed versions
          Defined variables
          Processing in bsd.port.pre.mk
          Additional configure arguments
        Using Lua
          Introduction
          Version selection
          Component selection
          Detecting installed versions
          Defined variables
          Processing in bsd.port.pre.mk
        Using Xfce
        Using databases
        Starting and stopping services (rc scripts)
          Stopping services at deinstall
      Advanced pkg-plist practices
        Changing pkg-plist based on make variables
        Empty directories
          Cleaning up empty directories
          Creating empty directories
        Configuration files
        Dynamic vs. static package list
        Automated package list creation
      The pkg-* files
        pkg-message
        pkg-install
        pkg-deinstall
        pkg-req
        Changing the names of pkg-* files
        Making use of SUB_FILES and SUB_LIST
      Testing your port
        Running make describe
        Portlint
        Port Tools
        PREFIX and DESTDIR
        Tinderbox
      Upgrading
      Ports security
        Why security is so important
        Fixing security vulnerabilities
        Keeping the community informed
          The VuXML database
          A short introduction to VuXML
          Testing your changes to the VuXML database
      Dos and Don'ts
        Introduction
        WRKDIR
        WRKDIRPREFIX
        Differentiating operating systems and OS versions
        __FreeBSD_version values
        Writing something after bsd.port.mk
        Use the exec statement in wrapper scripts
        UIDs and GIDs
        Do things rationally
        Respect both CC and CXX
        Respect CFLAGS
        Threading libraries
        Feedback
        README.html
        Marking a port not installable with BROKEN, FORBIDDEN, or IGNORE
          Variables
          Implementation Notes
        Marking a port for removal with DEPRECATED or EXPIRATION_DATE
        Avoid use of the .error construct
        Usage of sysctl
        Rerolling distfiles
        Necessary workarounds
        Miscellanea
      A Sample Makefile
      Keeping Up
        FreshPorts
        The Web Interface to the Source Repository
        The FreeBSD Ports Mailing List
        The FreeBSD Port Building Cluster on pointyhat.FreeBSD.org
        The FreeBSD Port Distfile Survey
        The FreeBSD Ports Monitoring System
    PMake -- A Tutorial
      Copyright
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
      The Basics of PMake
        Dependency Lines
        Shell Commands
        Variables
          Local Variables
          Command-line Variables
          Global Variables
          Environment Variables
        Comments
        Parallelism
        Writing and Debugging a Makefile
        Invoking PMake
        Summary
      Short-cuts and Other Nice Things
        Transformation Rules
        Including Other Makefiles
        Saving Commands
        Target Attributes
        Special Targets
        Modifying Variable Expansion
        More Exercises
      PMake for Gods
        Search Paths
        Archives and Libraries
        On the Condition...
        A Shell is a Shell is a Shell
        Compatibility
        DEFCON 3 - Variable Expansion
        DEFCON 2 - The Number of the Beast
        DEFCON 1 - Imitation is the Not the Highest Form of Flattery
        The Way Things Work
      Answers to Exercises
      Glossary of Jargon
    Chapter 2 of "The Design and Implementation of the 4.4BSD Operating System"
      Copyright
      Table of Contents
      Design Overview of 4.4BSD
        Table of Contents
        BSD Facilities and the Kernel
          The Kernel
        Kernel Organization
        Kernel Services
        Process Management
          Signals
          Process Groups and Sessions
        Memory Management
          BSD Memory-Management Design Decisions
          Memory Management Inside the Kernel
        I/O System
          Descriptors and I/O
          Descriptor Management
          Devices
          Socket IPC
          Scatter/Gather I/O
          Multiple Filesystem Support
        Filesystems
        Filestores
        Network Filesystem
        Terminals
        Interprocess Communication
        Network Communication
        Network Implementation
        System Operation
        References
    Chapter 8 of "The FreeBSD Corporate Networker's Guide"
      Copyright
      Table of Contents
      Printserving
        Table of Contents
        PC printing history
        Printer communication protocols and hardware
          ASCII Printing Protocol
          PostScript Printing Protocol
          HPPCL Printing Protocol
        Network Printing Basics
          Printservers
          Printspools
        Setting up LPR on Windows clients
          Windows 3.1/Windows for Workgroups 3.11
          Installation of the Novell TCP/IP Winsock client
          Installation of the LPR client on 16-bit Windows with a Winsock installed
          Installation of LPR client on Windows 95/98
          Installation of LPR client on Windows NT
        Printing PostScript and DOS command files
        Checking PostScript Printer capabilities
        Setting up LPR/LPD on FreeBSD
          Creating the spools
          Additional spool capabilities
          Printing to hardware print server boxes or remote print servers
          Filters
        Printer Accounting
        Microsoft Networking Client printing with Samba
          Client access issues
          Printer entries in configuration files
          Browsing output
        Printing between NT Server/NetWare and FreeBSD.
        Printing from UNIX
          lp
          lpr
          Managing the UNIX Print Queue
        Advanced Printing Topics
          Ghostscript
          a2ps filter
        Miscellaneous
    FreeBSD Documentation Project Primer for New Contributors
      Copyright
      Table of Contents
      Preface
      Shell Prompts
      Typographic Conventions
      Notes, Tips, Important Information, Warnings, and Examples
      Acknowledgments
      Overview
        The FreeBSD Documentation Set
        Before You Start
        Quick Start
      Tools
        Mandatory Tools
          Software
          DTDs and Entities
          Stylesheets
        Optional Tools
          Software
      SGML Primer
        Overview
        Elements, Tags, and Attributes
          For You to Do...
        The DOCTYPE Declaration
          Formal Public Identifiers (FPIs)
          Alternatives to FPIs
        Escaping Back to SGML
        Comments
          For You to Do...
        Entities
          General Entities
          Parameter Entities
          For You to Do...
        Using Entities to Include Files
          Using General Entities to Include Files
          Using Parameter Entities to Include Files
          For You to Do...
        Marked Sections
          Marked Section Keywords
          For You to Do...
        Conclusion
      SGML Markup
        HTML
          Formal Public Identifier (FPI)
          Sectional Elements
          Block Elements
          In-line Elements
          Links
        DocBook
          FreeBSD Extensions
          Formal Public Identifier (FPI)
          Document Structure
          Block Elements
          In-line Elements
          Images
          Links
      * Stylesheets
        * DSSSL
        CSS
          The DocBook Documents
      Structuring Documents Under doc/
        The Top Level, doc/
        The lang.encoding/Directories
        Document Specific Information
          The Handbook
      The Documentation Build Process
        The FreeBSD Documentation Build Toolset
        Understanding Makefiles in the Documentation tree
          Subdirectory Makefiles
          Documentation Makefiles
        FreeBSD Documentation Project make includes
          doc.project.mk
          doc.subdir.mk
      The Website
        Preparation
          Simple Method: Using csup
          Advanced Method: Maintaining a Local CVS doc/www Repository
        Build the Web Pages from Scratch
        Install the Web Pages into Your Web Server
        Environment Variables
      Translations
      Writing Style
        Style Guide
          Letter Case
          Acronyms
          Indentation
          Tag Style
          White Space Changes
          Non-Breaking Space
        Word List
      Using sgml-mode with Emacs
      See Also
        The FreeBSD Documentation Project
        SGML
        HTML
        DocBook
        The Linux Documentation Project
      A.Examples
        A.1 DocBook book
        A.2 DocBook <article>
        A.3 Producing Formatted Output
          A.3.1 Using Jade
    PPP - Pedantic PPP Primer
      Table of Contents
      Overview
      Building the Local Area Network
        Typical Network Topology
        Assumptions about the Local Area Network
      FreeBSD System Configuration
        Table of Contents
        Verifying the FreeBSD Host Name
          Configuring the FreeBSD Host Name
        Verifying the Ethernet Interface Configuration
          Configuring your Ethernet Interface
        Enabling Packet Forwarding
        Creating the List of other LAN Hosts(/etc/hosts)
        Testing the FreeBSD system
          Verifying the operation of the loopback device
          Verifying the operation of the Ethernet Device
      Configuring the PPP Dial-Out Connection
        Table of Contents
        Backing up the original PPP configuration files
        Create your own PPP configuration files
          The '/etc/ppp/ppp.conf' file
          The '/etc/ppp/ppp.linkup' file
        IP Aliasing
      Configuring Windows Systems
        Configuring Windows 95
        Configuring Windows NT
        Configuring Windows for Workgroups
      Testing the Network
        Table of Contents
        Testing the Dial-Up link
        Testing the Ethernet LAN
      Exercises for the Interested Student
        Table of Contents
        Creating a mini-DNS system
          The /etc/namedb/named.boot file
          The /etc/namedb/mydomain.db file
          Starting the DNS Server
        Playing with PPP filters
    FreeBSD Installation Guide
      Table of Contents
      Home
        0.1 Table of Contents
        1.0 Limits of Liability and Disclaimer of Warranty
        1.1 Copyright
        1.1 Contact
      Getting Started
        1.2 Synopsis
        1.3 Installer Prerequisites
        1.4 Introduction
        2.0 Preparing PC for FBSD
        2.1 Incremental Install Method
        2.2 Minimum Hardware Requirements
      Installing
        3.0 Installing FBSD
        3.1 ISO CD images
        3.2 Using MS/Windows to get ISO CD images
        3.3 PC BIOS
        3.4 Starting Award BIOS setup utility
        3.5 First time changes to PC BIOS
        3.6 Loading FBSD to the Hard drive
      Post Install
        4.0 Post Install Configuration
        4.1 Root Account
        4.2 Gracefully Stopping your System
        4.3 Navigating the File System Directory Tree
        4.4 Command Line Path Prefix
        4.5 How to use the ee editor
        4.6 User Login Announcement
        4.7 Command Line History
        4.8 Keyboard F1 - F8 Keys
        4.9 FBSD Logs
        4.10 Enabling clear tmp directory
        4.11 Using mouse copy/paste function
          4.11.1 Enabling 2 button mouse copy/paste function
          4.11.3 Testing mouse copy/paste function
          4.11.4 Further customizing the mouse arrow pointer
        4.12 Scroll lock history
        4.13 Assigning a Host name to your FBSD system.
        4.14 Hosts File
        4.15 Screen Saver
        4.16 Basic EMAIL Information
        4.17 Time Zone setup
      Internet Access
        5.0 Accessing the Internet
        5.1 Cable TV access to the Internet
          5.1.1 Installing a PCI NIC
          5.1.2 Configuring a cable modem Internet connection
          5.1.3 Test your cable modem connectivity
        5.2 Products offered by the public telephone company
          5.2.1 Analog voice dial up service to your ISP
          5.2.2 Analog voice ISDN service
          5.2.3 Digital DSL service
          5.2.4 Digital leased lines
        5.3 Enabling voice phone Modems
          5.3.1 PCI Modem Types
          5.3.2 How to determine if FBSD found my modem at boot time
          5.3.4 External serial modems
          5.3.5 Determining if your external serial modem is connected to FBSD
          5.3.6 Internal PCI modem
          5.3.7 PCI Modem found as <unknown card>
          5.3.8 PCI Modem found and moved to sio4
          5.3.9 Determining if your internal PCI modem is connected to FBSD
        5.5 Internet access protocols
          5.5.0 User PPP
          5.5.1 User PPP NAT function
          5.5.2 Configuring User PPP for modem dial out to ISP
          5.5.3 Test User PPP dialisp
          5.5.4 Enable Dial ISP at boot time
          5.5.5 User PPP Filters
        5.6 Configuring User PPP to accept inbound modem calls
          5.6.1 Inbound ppp.conf statements
          5.6.2 Configure Incoming services
          5.6.3 Configure Modem to answer call using HAYES Commands
          5.6.4 How the Incoming call process works
          5.6.5 Testing Incoming call function
        5.7 User PPP Callback Feature
          5.7.1 Callback Feature on Incoming Calls
          5.7.2 Summary of how Incoming callback works
          5.7.3 ISP callback Feature
          5.7.4 Summary of how ISP callback works
        5.8 PPPoE ppp.conf statements for DSL connection
          5.9 User PPP Logs
          5.10 Stray irq 7 messages
      Network Security
        6.0 Network Security
          6.0.1 Firewalls
          6.0.2 Firewall Rule Set Types
          6.0.3 Firewall Software Applications
        6.1 IPFILTER (IPF) Firewall
          6.1.1 Enabling IPF
          6.1.2 Kernel options.
          6.1.3 RC.CONF Options
        6.2 IPF COMMAND
        6.3 IPFSTAT Command
        6.4 IPMON Command
          6.4.1 IPMON Logging
          6.4.2 Format of Logged Messages
        6.5 Building Rule Script
        6.6.IPF Rule Sets
          6.6.1 Rule Syntax
          6.6.2 Stateful Filtering
        6.7 Inclusive Rule set Example
        6.8 NAT Explanation
          6.8.1 IPNAT Command
          6.8.2 NAT Rules
          6.8.3 How NAT works
          6.8.4 Enabling Nat
          6.8.5 Nat for very Large Lan
          6.8.6 Directing traffic to Lan Servers
          6.8.7 FTP Special Nat Handling
          6.8.8 FTP Filter rules
        6.9 IPFIREWALL (IPFW) Firewall
          6.9.1 Enabling IPFW
          6.9.2 Kernel Options
          6.9.3 RC.CONF Options
          6.9.4 IPFW Command
          6.9.4 IPFW Rule Sets
          6.9.5 Rule Syntax
          6.9.6 Stateful Rule Option
          6.9.7 Logging Firewall Messages
          6.9.8 Building Rule Script
          6.9.9 Stateful Rule Set
          6.9.10 Example Inclusive Rule Set
        6.10 Stateful + NATD Rule Set
          6.11 OpenBSD's Packet Filter Firewall
          6.11.1 Enabling PF
          6.11.2 Kernel Options
          6.11.3 RC.CONF Statements
          6.11.4 PFCTL Command
          6.11.5 PF Rule Sets
          6.11.6 Rule Syntax
          6.11.7 Stateful Filtering
          6.11.8 Nat Explanation
          6.11.9 Logging
        6.12 Inclusive Rule set Example
        6.13 Defending Against Attacks
          6.13.1 Know Who Your Attacker is
          6.13.2 Stopping Login Attacks
          6.13.3 Stopping Web Server Attacks
        6.14 Example SSH setup
          6.14.1 Example Environment Description
          6.14.2 Host Setup
          6.14.3 FBSD-client Setup
          6.14.4 Using Midnight Commander for SFTP
          6.14.5 Win-client Setup
          6.14.6 Putty Setup
          6.14.7 WinSC3 Setup
          6.14.8 Fraudulent SSH Login Attempts
      Local Area Network
        7.0 Setting up Local Area Network (LAN)
        7.1 Home User LANs
        7.2 Topography of a LAN
        7.3 Installing the LAN
        7.4 LAN private IP address
        7.5 Manually Configuring the Gateway
        7.6 Manually configuring FBSD LAN PCs
        7.7 Manually configuring MS/Windows LAN PCs
      DHCP Server
        8.0 DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
        8.1 What function does DHCP perform?
        8.2 DHCP Server
        8.3 How DHCP Works
        8.4 DHCP Configuration Instructions
        8.5 Testing the DHCPD Daemon
        8.6 FBSD as a DHCP Client
      System Security
        9.0 FBSD System Security
        9.1 Network packet Security options
          9.1.1 Sysctl.conf Security Knobs
          9.1.2 Secure rc.conf
          9.1.3 Secure Kernel Source
        9.2 Security Paranoia
        9.3 Highest Level of Security Paranoia
          9.3.1 Jail facility
          9.3.2 rc.conf securelevel option
          9.3.3 Encrypting Disk Partitions
      FBSD Basics
        10.0 FBSD Basics
        10.1 Introduction to the manual documentation
        10.2 Basic FBSD Commands you will need to know
        10.3 Controlling what messages go to what syslog files
          10.3.1 LOG rotation and archiving
        10.4 Setting System Date and Time
        10.5 Capturing screen content to file
        10.6 Cron Scheduling Application & System Management Reports
        10.7 Using the Floppy drive
          10.7.1 To format a FBSD file system floppy disk
          10.7.2 To create /a floppy mount point
          10.7.3 To mount floppy drive
          10.7.4 To test floppy drive
          10.7.5 To remove floppy from drive
          10.7.6 To mount MS/Windows formatted floppy disk
          10.7.7 Easier way to mount MS/Windows floppies
          10.7.8 To test auto floppy drive mount
        10.8 Mounting Cdrom
        10.9 User Account Admin
          10.9.1 Configure the pw Command
          10.9.2 Examples of pw command usage
          10.9.3 pw command embedded in a script
          10.9.4 passwd command
          10.9.5 chpass command
          10.9.6 Super User
        10.10 Permissions
          10.10.1 Managing Permissions
          10.10 2 Change file permissions
          10.10.3 Change file owner
          10.10.4 Change file group
        10.11 Managing your configuration changes
          10.11.1 Personal Scripts
          10.11.2 Script to Backup /custom to floppy
          10.11.3 Script to Restore floppy to /custom
        10.12 Burncd and .iso files
          10.12.1 ISO FTP download script
          10.12.2 Burncd command
        10.13 Technical Support
        10.14 Boot Time Splash Screen
          10.14.1 Splash Screen Function
          10.14.2 Enabling the Splash Screen Function
          10.14.3 Sample Splash Screen
      Email Services
        11.0 Email Service
          11.1 Commercial, non-Commercial sendmail Users
        11.2 Configure Sendmail to send enail through your ISP
        11.3 POP3 Email Server
        11.4 Qpopper Application
          11.4.1 Qpopper Installation Instructions
        11.5 Configuring Microsoft Outlook for FBSD mail service
        11.6 Fetchmail / Getting your ISP mail to FBSD
          11.6.1 Fetchmail Installation Instructions
          11.6.2 Testing Fetchmail
          11.6.3 Boot Time Enable
        11.8 Email Reading
          11.8.1 Using the mail command
          11.8.2 Checking your mail
          11.8.3 Creating / sending your mail
          11.8.4 Mbox File
          11.8.5 Mail sub-commands
          11.8.6 Replying to or creating new mail
        11.9 Email Vacation Auto Responder
          11.9.1 How vacation process works
          11.9.2 .vacation msg file
          11.9.3 .vacation.db File
          11.9.4 .forward File
          11.9.5 SYNTAX of the command
          11.9.6 Procedure to Activate
      Ports & Packages
        12.0 Ports & Packages
        12.1 Determining what to install
        12.2 Finding the Application Download Name
        12.3 Package Benefits
        12.4 Ports Benefits
        12.5 Using the Package Collection
          12.5.1 Alternate Access Method to package Collection
        12.6 Using the Port Collection
          12.6.1 Downloading make files for single port
          12.6.2 Fetch Port Config Files Script
        12.7 Ports/Package Install History Database Commands
        12.8 Port Make Commands
      Kernel Customizing
        13.0 Kernel Customizing
        13.1 Kernel Compile Steps
        13.2 Managing Multiple Kernels
        13.4 Replacing /kernel with saved /kernel
        13.5 Fix System Boot problems
        13.6 Single user mode
        13.7 Forgot Root password
        13.8 New Kernel won't boot
      FTP & Telnet
        14.0 FTP & Telnet
        14.1 Inetd, FBSD's Super server
        14.2 Configure Insecure FTP
        14.3 Anonymous FTP Server
        14.4 Quotas
        14.5 Telnet
        14.6 Secure FTP & Telnet
      Masquerading as Commercial User
        15.0 Masquerading as a Commercial User
        15.2 Verifying ports 25 & 80 are open
        15.3 Masquerading Using ZoneEdit
        15.4 Configurating ZoneEdit
  Articles
    List of eBooks
    The Roadmap for 5-STABLE
      Table of Contents
      Introduction and Background
      Major issues
      Requirements for 5-STABLE
      Post RELENG_5 direction
    Why you should use a BSD style license for your Open Source Project
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
      Very Brief Open Source History
      Unix from a BSD Licensing Perspective
      The Current State of FreeBSD and BSD Licenses
      The origins of the GPL
      The origins of Linux and the LGPL
      Open Source licenses and the Orphaning Problem
      What a license cannot do
      GPL Advantages and Disadvantages
      BSD Advantages
      Specific Recommendations for using a BSD license
      Conclusion
      Addenda
    Building Products with FreeBSD
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
      FreeBSD as a set of building blocks
      Collaborating with FreeBSD
      Conclusion
      Bibliography
    Argentina.com : A Case Study
      Table of Contents
      Overview
      The Challenge
      The FreeBSD solution
      Results
    Integration of Check Point VPN-1/Firewall-1 and FreeBSD IPsec
      Table of Contents
      Prerequisites
      Firewall-1 Network Object Configuration
      Firewall-1 VPN Rule Configuration
      FreeBSD VPN Policy Configuration
      FreeBSD Racoon Configuration
      Starting the VPN
      References
    Committer's Guide
      Table of Contents
      Administrative Details
      Commit Bit Types
      CVS Operations
      Conventions and Traditions
      Preferred License for New Files
      Developer Relations
      GNATS
      Who's Who
      SSH Quick-Start Guide
      The FreeBSD Committers' Big List of Rules
      Support for Multiple Architectures
      Ports Specific FAQ
      Perks of the Job
      Miscellaneous Questions
    Console Server Tutorial
      Table of Contents
      The Problem
      Possible Solutions
      Our Solution
      Setting Up The Server
      Cabling
      On Sun Systems And Break
      Using a Serial Console on FreeBSD
      Security Implications
      On Conserver Versions
      Links
      Manual Pages
    Contributing to FreeBSD
      Table of Contents
      What Is Needed
      How to Contribute
    Contributing to the FreeBSD Ports Collection
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
      What you can do to help
      Creating a new port
      Adopting an unmaintained port
      The challenge for port maintainers
      Finding and fixing a broken port
      When to call it quits
      Resources for ports maintainers and contributors
    Contributors to FreeBSD
      Table of Contents
      Donors Gallery
      The FreeBSD Core Team
      Other FreeBSD Teams
      Miscellaneous Hats
      FreeBSD Release Engineering Teams
      The FreeBSD Developers
      The FreeBSD Documentation Project
      Who is Responsible for What
      Core Team Alumni
      Development Team Alumni
      Derived Software Contributors
      Additional FreeBSD Contributors
      386BSD Patch Kit Patch Contributors
    Setting up a CVS repository - the FreeBSD way
      Introduction
      First setup
      FreeBSD specific setup
    CVSup Advanced Points
      Table of Contents
      Preface
      Introduction
      A useful python script: cvsupchk
      Examples of more advanced source management
    Dialup firewalling with FreeBSD
      Table of Contents
      Preface
      Kernel Options
      Changing /etc/rc.conf to load the firewall
      Enable PPP's network address translation
      The rule set for the firewall
      Questions
    Diskless X Server: a how to guide
      Table of Contents
      Creating the boot floppy (On the diskless system)
      Getting the network boot programs (On the server)
      Determine which program to run (On the diskless system)
      Booting across the network
      Allowing systems to boot across the network (On the server)
    The Euro symbol on FreeBSD
      The Euro in a nutshell
      A general remark
      The console
      Modifying X11
      Open problems
    Explaining BSD
      What is BSD?
      What, a real UNIX?
      Why is BSD not better known?
      Comparing BSD and Linux
    FreeBSD From Scratch
      Introduction
      Why would I (not) want FreeBSD From Scratch?
      Prerequisites
      Stage One: System Installation
      Stage Two: Ports Installation
      Stage Three
      Limitations
      The Files
    Filtering Bridges
      Why use a filtering bridge?
      How to Install
      Final Preparation
      Enabling the Bridge
      Configuring The Firewall
      Contributors
    Fonts and FreeBSD
      Introduction
      Basic terminology
      What font formats can I use?
      Setting a virtual console to 80x60 line mode
      Using type 1 fonts with X11
      Using type 1 fonts with Ghostscript
      Using type 1 fonts with Groff
      Converting TrueType fonts to a groff/postscript format for groff
      Can TrueType fonts be used with other programs?
      Where can additional fonts be obtained?
      Additional questions
    Formatting Media For Use With FreeBSD
      Introduction & Definitions
      Formatting Disks in Dedicated Mode
      Making Compatibility Mode Disks
      Other Disk Operations
      Credits
    How to get best results from the FreeBSD-questions mailing list
      Introduction
      How to subscribe to FreeBSD-questions
      How to unsubscribe from FreeBSD-questions
      Should I ask -questions or -hackers?
      Before submitting a question
      How to submit a question
      How to follow up to a question
      How to answer a question
    Working with Hats
      Working with Hats
    Mirroring FreeBSD
      Contact Information
      Requirements for FreeBSD mirrors
      How to mirror FreeBSD
      Where to mirror from
      Official Mirrors
      Some statistics from mirror sites
    Independent Verification of IPsec Functionality in FreeBSD
      The Problem
      The Solution
      The Experiment
      Caveat
      IPsec---Definition
      Installing IPsec
      src/sys/i386/conf/KERNELNAME
      Maurer's Universal Statistical Test (for block size=8 bits)
    Java and Jakarta Tomcat on FreeBSD
      Introduction
      The Java- Environment
      Jakarta Tomcat Setup
      Reference
    FreeBSD on Laptops
      Xorg
      XFree86O
      Modems
      PCMCIA (PC Card) devices
      Power management
    FreeBSD: An Open Source Alternative to Linux
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
      FreeBSD Features
      Security
      Support
      Advantages to Choosing FreeBSD
      Conclusion
      Addenda
    Frequently Asked Questions About The FreeBSD Mailing Lists
      Introduction
      Mailing List Etiquette
      Recurring Topics On The Mailing Lists
      What Is A 'Bikeshed'?
      Acknowledgments
    An MH Primer
      Introduction
      Reading Mail
      Folders and Mail Searching
      Sending Mail
    Installing and Using FreeBSD With Other Operating Systems
      Overview
      Overview of Boot Managers
      A Typical Installation
      Special Considerations
      Examples
      Other Sources of Help
      Technical Details
    Introduction to NanoBSD
      Table of Contents
      Introduction to NanoBSD
      NanoBSD Howto
    For People New to Both FreeBSD and Unix
      Logging in and Getting Out
      Adding A User with Root Privileges
      Looking Around
      Getting Help and Information
      Editing Text
      Printing Files from DOS
      Other Useful Commands
      Next Steps
      Your Working Environment
      Other
      Comments Welcome
    Perforce in FreeBSD Development
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
      Getting Started
      Clients
      Syncing
      Branches
      Integrations
      Submit
      Editing
      Changes, Descriptions, and History
      Diffs
      Adding and Removing Files
      Working with diffs
      Renaming files
      Interactions between FreeBSD CVS and Perforce
      Offline Operation
      Notes for Google Summer of Code
    Pluggable Authentication Modules
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
      Terms and conventions
      PAM Essentials
      PAM Configuration
      FreeBSD PAM Modules
      PAM Application Programming
      PAM Module Programming
      A. Sample PAM Application
      B. Sample PAM Module
      C. Sample PAM Conversation Function
      Further Reading
    Package Building Procedures
      Copyright
      Table of Contents
      Introduction and Conventions
      Build Client Management
      Chroot Build Environment Setup
      Starting the Build
      Anatomy of a Build
      Interrupting a Build
      Monitoring the Build
      Release Builds
      Uploading Packages
      Experimental Patches Builds
    Problem Report Handling Guidelines
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
      Problem Report Life-cycle
      Problem Report State
      Types of Problem Reports
      Further Reading
    Writing FreeBSD Problem Reports
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
      When to submit a problem report
      Preparations
      Writing the problem report
      Follow-up
      If you are having problems
      Further Reading
    FreeBSD Jumpstart Guide
      Introduction
      Server Configuration
      Bootstrap Setup
      Install Setup
      Custom Post-Install Package
    Practical rc.d scripting in BSD
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
      Outlining the task
      A dummy script
      A configurable dummy script
      Startup and shutdown of a simple daemon
      Startup and shutdown of an advanced daemon
      Connecting a script to the rc.d framework
      Further reading
    Using Greylist with FreeBSD
      Basic Configuration
    FreeBSD Release Engineering
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
      Release Process
      Release Building
      Distribution
      Extensibility
      Lessons Learned from FreeBSD 4.4
      Future Directions
      Acknowledgements
      References
    FreeBSD Release Engineering for Third Party Software Packages
      Building packages from the Ports Collection
      The Package Split
    Serial and UART Tutorial
      The UART: What it is and how it works
      Configuring the sio driver
      Configuring the cy driver
      Configuring the si driver
    FreeBSD and Solid State Devices
      Table of Contents
      Solid State Disk Devices
      Kernel Options
      rc.diskless and Read-Only Filesystems
      Building a File System From Scratch
      Building a kern.flp Installation Floppy with the fla Driver
      System Strategies for Small and Read Only Environments
    Storage Devices
      Using ESDI hard disks
      What is SCSI?
      * Disk/tape controllers
      Hard drives
      Tape drives
      CDROM drives
    Choosing the FreeBSD Version That Is Right For You
      Table of Contents
      Background
      Release Scheduling In The Past
      Release Scheduling Goals Going Forward
      How Do These Factors Affect My Decision?
      Conclusion
    Bootstrapping Vinum: A Foundation for Reliable Servers
      Introduction
      Bootstrapping Phases
      Where to Go from Here?
      Failure Scenarios
      bootvinum Perl Script
      Manual Vinum Bootstrapping
      Acknowledgements
    Design elements of the FreeBSD VM system
      Introduction
      VM Objects
      SWAP Layers
      When to free a page
      Pre-Faulting and Zeroing Optimizations
      Page Table Optimizations
      Page Coloring
      Conclusion
      Bonus QA session by Allen Briggs briggs@ninthwonder.com
    ZIP Drives
      ZIP Drive Basics
      Parallel ZIP: The vpo Driver
      Mounting ZIP disks
    Writing a GEOM Class
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
      Preliminaries
      On FreeBSD kernel programming
      On GEOM programming
    Creating a Software Testing Environment Using FreeBSD
      Table of Contents
      Overview
      The Challenge
      The FreeBSD Solution
      Conclusion
  FreeBSD Releases
    FreeBSD 7.1-RELEASE Release Notes
      Introduction
      What's New
        Security Advisories
        Kernel Changes
          Boot Loader Changes
          Hardware Support
          Network Protocols
          Disks and Storage
          File Systems
        Userland Changes
          /etc/rc.d Scripts
        Contributed Software
          Release Engineering and Integration
      Upgrading from previous releases of FreeBSD
    FreeBSD 7.1-RELEASE Hardware Notes
      Introduction
      Supported Processors and System Boards
        amd64
        i386
        ia64
        pc98
        powerpc
        sparc64
      Supported Devices
        Disk Controllers
        Ethernet Interfaces
        Token Ring Interfaces
        FDDI Interfaces
        ATM Interfaces
        Wireless Network Interfaces
        Miscellaneous Networks
        ISDN Interfaces
        Serial Interfaces
        Sound Devices
        Camera and Video Capture Devices
        USB Devices
        IEEE 1394 (Firewire) Devices
        Bluetooth Devices
        Cryptographic Accelerators
        Miscellaneous
    FreeBSD 7.1-RELEASE Errata
Linux Documentation
  Guides
    List of eBooks
    Advanced Bash-Scripting Guide
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
        Why Shell Programming?
        Starting Off With a Sha-Bang
      Basics
        Special Characters
        Introduction to Variables and Parameters
        Quoting
        Exit and Exit Status
        Tests
        Operations and Related Topics
      Beyond the Basics
        Variables Revisited
        Loops and Branches
        Command Substitution
        Arithmetic Expansion
        Recess Time
      Commands
        Internal Commands and Builtins
        External Filters, Programs and Commands
        System and Administrative Commands
      Advanced Topics
        Regular Expressions
        Here Documents
        I/O Redirection
        Subshells
        Restricted Shells
        Process Substitution
        Functions
        Aliases
        List Constructs
        Arrays
        /dev and /proc
        Of Zeros and Nulls
        Debugging
        Options
        Gotchas
        Scripting With Style
        Miscellany
        Bash, versions 2 and 3
      Endnotes
        Author's Note
        About the Author
        Where to Go For Help
        Tools Used to Produce This Book
        Credits
        Disclaimer
      Bibliography
      A. Contributed Scripts
      B. Reference Cards
      C. A Sed and Awk Micro-Primer
        Sed
        Awk
      D. Exit Codes With Special Meanings
      E. A Detailed Introduction to I/O and I/O Redirection
      F. Command-Line Options
        Standard Command-Line Options
        Bash Command-Line Options
      G. Important Files
      H. Important System Directories
      I. Localization
      J. History Commands
      K. A Sample .bashrc File
      L. Converting DOS Batch Files to Shell Scripts
      M Exercises
        Analyzing Scripts
        Writing Scripts
      N. Revision History
      O. Download and Mirror Sites
      P. To Do List
      Q. Copyright
      R. ASCII Table
      Index
    Bash Guide for Beginners
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
        Why this guide?
        Who should read this book?
        New versions, translations and availability
        Revision History
        Contributions
        Feedback
        Copyright information
        What do you need?
        Conventions used in this document
        Organization of this document
      Bash and Bash scripts
        Common shell programs
        Advantages of the Bourne Again SHell
        Executing commands
        Building blocks
        Developing good scripts
        Summary
        Exercises
      Writing and debugging scripts
        Creating and running a script
        Script basics
        Debugging Bash scripts
        Summary
        Exercises
      The Bash environment
        Shell initialization files
        Variables
        Quoting characters
        Shell expansion
        Aliases
        More Bash options
        Summary
        Exercises
      Regular expressions
        Regular expressions
        Examples using grep
        Pattern matching using Bash features
        Summary
        Exercises
      The GNU sed stream editor
        Introduction
        Interactive editing
        Non-interactive editing
        Summary
        Exercises
      The GNU awk programming language
        Getting started with gawk
        The print program
        Gawk variables
        Summary
        Exercises
      Conditional statements
        Introduction to if
        More advanced if usage
        Using case statements
        Summary
        Exercises
      Writing interactive scripts
        Displaying user messages
        Catching user input
        Summary
        Exercises
      Repetitive tasks
        The for loop
        The while loop
        The until loop
        I/O redirection and loops
        Break and continue
        Making menus with the select built-in
        The shift built-in
        Summary
        Exercises
      More on variables
        Types of variables
        Array variables
        Operations on variables
        Summary
        Exercises
      Functions
        Introduction
        Examples of functions in scripts
        Summary
        Exercises
      Catching signals
        Signals
        Traps
        Summary
        Exercises
      A. Shell Features
        Common features
        Differing features
      Glossary
      Index
    Custom Linux: A Porting Guide
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
        Who needs to read this ?
        What do I need to know (why so much) ?
        The tools
        The hardware
        Copyright & License
      Bootcamp: How To Begin ?
        Creating a development environment
        Compiling the first kernel
        Booting the machine
      Booting In The Dark
        Debugging with print_str()
        Modifying code using compiler flags
        Getting the console to work
      Linux Still Isn't Booting
        Memory probing, RTC and decrementors
        Big-little endian (we should have known)
        Ethernet: our first PCI device
        Some Miscellaneous Issues
      Linux Is Booting ... What Now ?
        The 64 bit barrier
        Booting from flash
      Appendix A. GNU Free Documentation License
        PREAMBLE
        APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
        VERBATIM COPYING
        COPYING IN QUANTITY
        MODIFICATIONS
        COMBINING DOCUMENTS
        COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
        AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
        TRANSLATION
        TERMINATION
        FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
        How to use this License for your documents
      Appendix B. Trademarks
    Emacspeak User's Guide
      Table of Contents
      Legal Notice
      Introduction
        What is Emacspeak?
        About this tutorial
      Before you begin
        Getting started with Emacs and Emacspeak
        Emacs Command Conventions
        Getting Help
      System Administration
        Changing your password
        Installing applications
      Working with files
        Downloading files
        Finding a file
        FTPing a file
        Manipulating files
      Working online
        Browsing the Internet
        Chatting online
        Using e-mail
      Productivity
        Coding in Emacs
        Customizing Emacspeak
        Reading Adobe Acrobat files
        Scheduling appointments and calendar events
        Writing text in Emacs
      Entertainment
        Burning a CD
        Playing CDs
        Playing mp3s
        Playing games
      Acknowledgments
      Wish list for version 2.0
    EVMS User Guide
      Table of Contents
      Copyright information
      Preface
      What is EVMS?
        Why choose EVMS?
        The EVMS user interfaces
        EVMS terminology
        What makes EVMS so flexible?
        Plug-in layer definitions
      Using the EVMS interfaces
        EVMS GUI
        EVMS Ncurses interface
        EVMS Command Line Interpreter
      The EVMS log file and error data collection
        About the EVMS log file
        Log file logging levels
        Specifying the logging levels
      Viewing compatibility volumes after migrating
        Using the EVMS GUI
        Using Ncurses
        Using the CLI
      Obtaining interface display details
        Using the EVMS GUI
        Using Ncurses
        Using the CLI
      Adding and removing a segment manager
        When to add a segment manager
        Types of segment managers
        Adding a segment manager to an existing disk
        Adding a segment manager to a new disk
        Example: add a segment manager
        Removing a segment manager
        Example: remove a segment manager
      Creating segments
        When to create a segment
        Example: create a segment
      Creating a container
        When to create a container
        Example: create a container
      Creating regions
        When to create regions
        Example: create a region
      Creating drive links
        What is drive linking?
        How drive linking is implemented
        Creating a drive link
        Example: create a drive link
        Expanding a drive link
        Shrinking a drive link
        Deleting a drive link
      Creating snapshots
        What is a snapshot?
        Creating snapshot objects
        Example: create a snapshot
        Reinitializing a snapshot
        Expanding a snapshot
        Deleting a snapshot
        Rolling back a snapshot
      Creating volumes
        When to create a volume
        Example: create an EVMS native volume
        Example: create a compatibility volume
      FSIMs and file system operations
        The FSIMs supported by EVMS
        Example: add a file system to a volume
        Example: check a file system
      Clustering operations
        Rules and restrictions for creating cluster containers
        Example: create a private cluster container
        Example: create a shared cluster container
        Example: convert a private container to a shared container
        Example: convert a shared container to a private container
        Example: deport a private or shared container
        Deleting a cluster container
        Failover and Failback of a private container on Linux-HA
        Remote configuration management
        Forcing a cluster container to be active
      Converting volumes
        When to convert volumes
        Example: convert compatibility volumes to EVMS volumes
        Example: convert EVMS volumes to compatibility volumes
      Expanding and shrinking volumes
        Why expand and shrink volumes?
        Example: shrink a volume
        Example: expand a volume
      Adding features to an existing volume
        Why add features to a volume?
        Example: add drive linking to an existing volume
      Selectively activating volumes and objects
        Initial activation using /etc/evms.conf
        Activating and deactivating volumes and objects
      Mounting and unmounting volumes from within EVMS
        Mounting a volume
        Unmounting a volume
        The SWAPFS file system
      Plug-in operations tasks
        What are plug-in tasks?
        Example: complete a plug-in operations task
      Deleting objects
        How to delete objects: delete and delete recursive
        Example: perform a delete recursive operation
      Replacing objects
        What is object-replace?
        Replacing a drive-link child object
      Moving segment storage objects
        What is segment moving?
        Why move a segment?
        Which segment manager plug-ins implement the move function?
        Example: move a DOS segment
      Appendix A. The DOS plug-in
        How the DOS plug-in is implemented
        Assigning the DOS plug-in
        Creating DOS partitions
        Expanding DOS partitions
        Shrinking DOS partitions
        Deleting partitions
      Appendix B. The MD region manager
        Characteristics of Linux RAID levels
        Creating an MD region
        Active and spare objects
        Faulty objects
        Resizing MD regions
        Replacing objects
      Appendix C. The LVM plug-in
        How LVM is implemented
        Container operations
        Region operations
      Appendix D. The LVM2 plug-in
        Container operations
        Region operations
      Appendix E. The CSM plug-in
        Assigning the CSM plug-in
        Unassigning the CSM plug-in
        Deleting a CSM container
      Appendix F. JFS file system interface module
        Creating JFS file systems
        Checking JFS file systems
        Removing JFS file systems
        Expanding JFS file systems
        Shrinking JFS file systems
      Appendix G. XFS file system interface module
        Creating XFS file systems
        Checking XFS file systems
        Removing XFS file systems
        Expanding XFS file systems
        Shrinking XFS file systems
      Appendix H. ReiserFS file system interface module
        Creating ReiserFS file systems
        Checking ReiserFS file systems
        Removing ReiserFS file systems
        Expanding ReiserFS file systems
        Shrinking ReiserFS file systems
      Appendix I. Ext-2/3 file system interface module
        Creating Ext-2/3 file systems
        Checking Ext-2/3 file systems
        Removing Ext-2/3 file systems
        Expanding and shrinking Ext-2/3 file systems
      Appendix J. OpenGFS file system interface module
        Creating OpenGFS file systems
        Checking OpenGFS file systems
        Removing OpenGFS file systems
        Expanding and shrinking OpenGFS file systems
      Appendix K. NTFS file system interface module
        Creating NTFS file systems
        Fixing NTFS file systems
        Cloning NTFS file systems
        Removing NTFS file systems
        Expanding and shrinking NTFS file systems
    GNU/Linux Command-Line Tools Summary
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
        Who would want to read this guide?
        Who would not want to read this guide?
        Availability of sources
        Conventions used in this guide
        Resources used to create this document
        Feedback
        Contributors
      Legal
        Disclaimer
        License
      The Unix Tools Philosophy
      Shell Tips
        General Shell Tips
        The command-line history
        Other Key combinations
        Virtual Terminals and screen
      Help
      Directing Input/Output
        Concept Definitions
        Usage
        Command Substitution
        Performing more than one command
      Working with the file-system
        Moving around the filesystem
        Working with files and folders
        Mass Rename/copy/link Tools
      Finding information about the system
        Date/Time/Calendars
        Finding information about partitions
      Controlling the system
        Mounting and Unmounting (Floppy/CDROM/Hard-drive Partitions)
        Shutting Down/Rebooting the System
        Controlling Processes
        Controlling services
      Managing users
        Users/Groups
      Text Related Tools
        Text Editors
        Text Viewing Tools
        Text Information Tools
        Text manipulation tools
        Text Conversion/Filter Tools
        Finding Text Within Files
      Mathematical tools
      Network Commands
        Network Configuration
        Internet Specific Commands
        Remote Administration Related
      Security
        Some basic Security Tools
        File Permissions
      Archiving Files
        tar (tape archiver)
        rsync
        Compression
      Graphics tools (command line based)
      Working with MS-DOS files
      Scheduling Commands to run in the background
      Miscellaneous
      Mini-Guides
        RPM: Redhat Package Management System
        Checking the Hard Disk for errors
        Duplicating disks
        Wildcards
      Appendix A.
        Finding Packages/Tools
        Further Reading
        GNU Free Documentation License
      Bibliography
      Index
    Guide to Managing Media and Public Relations in the Linux Community
      Table of Contents
      Legal Notice
      Introduction
        Who Should Be Reading This Guide?
        What is Public Relations?
        How Public Relations Differs from Advertising
        What Public Relations Can Do
        The Benefits of a Public and Media Relations Program
      Public and Media Relations Planning
        What Do You Want to Accomplish?
        Who Needs to Know About Your Organization?
        What Do You Want to Say?
        What Kind of Information is Newsworthy?
      Contacting the News Media
        Creating a Media Contact Database
        Maintaining Your Database
        Contacting the Editors
        Making the Pitch
        Pitching for Different Media
      Working with the Media
        Duties of an Editor
        Targeting Other Medias
        'Selling' Your Story to the Media
        Do's and Don'ts When Dealing with the News Media
        Monitoring Media Coverage
      News Releases - the Major Communications Tool
        Writing News Releases
        What Makes a News Release Good (or Bad)
        Top Ten Tips for Writing Releases
        Distributing the News Release
      Other Public Relations Tools
        Feature Articles
        Bylined Articles
        Email Writing
        Miscellaneous Communications Tools
        Don't Forget Emphasizing Core Messages
      Working the Trade Show
        Arranging Speaking Opportunities
        Getting Media Attention at Trade Shows
        Planning for a Trade Show
      Quick Tips for Maximizing Coverage
        How to Maximize Media Coverage
      Appendix A. Monitoring Media Coverage
        Media Monitor Services and Clipping Services
    Introduction to Linux
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
        Why this guide?
        Who should read this book?
        New versions and availability
        Revision History
        Contributions
        Feedback
        Copyright information
        What do you need?
        Conventions used in this document
        Organization of this document
      What is Linux?
        History
        The user interface
        Does Linux have a future?
        Properties of Linux
        Linux Flavors
        Summary
        Exercises
      Quickstart
        Logging in, activating the user interface and logging out
        Absolute basics
        Getting help
        Summary
        Exercises
      About files and the file system
        General overview of the Linux file system
        Orientation in the file system
        Manipulating files
        File security
        Summary
        Exercises
      Processes
        Processes inside out
        Boot process, Init and shutdown
        Managing processes
        Scheduling processes
        Summary
        Exercises
      I/O redirection
        Simple redirections
        Advanced redirection features
        Filters
        Summary
        Exercises
      Text editors
        Text editors
        Using the Vim editor
        Linux in the office
        Summary
        Exercises
      Home sweet /home
        General good housekeeping
        Your text environment
        The graphical environment
        Region specific settings
        Installing new software
        Summary
        Exercises
      Printers and printing
        Printing files
        The server side
        Print problems
        Summary
        Exercises
      Fundamental Backup Techniques
        Introduction
        Moving your data to a backup device
        Using rsync
        Encryption
        Summary
        Exercises
      Networking
        Networking Overview
        Network configuration and information
        Internet/Intranet applications
        Remote execution of applications
        Security
        Summary
        Exercises
      Sound and Video
        Audio Basics
        Sound and video playing
        Video playing, streams and television watching
        Internet Telephony
        Summary
        Exercises
      A. Where to go from here?
        Useful Books
        Useful sites
      B. DOS versus Linux commands
      C. Shell Features
        Common features
        Differing features
      Glossary
      Index
    LDP Author Guide
      Table of Contents
      About this Guide
        About this Guide
        About The LDP
        Feedback
        Copyrights and Trademarks
        Acknowledgments and Thanks
        Document Conventions
      Authoring TLDP Documents: An Introduction
        Summary of The LDP Process
        Mailing Lists
      Writing Your Proposal
        Choosing a Subject
        Scope of Your Document
        Unmaintained and Out-of-date Documents
        Developing an Outline
        Research
      Write
        Writing the Text
        Edit and Proofread the Text
        Tools for Writing, Editing and Maintaining your Document
      Markup
        Markup: A General Overview
        DocBook: What it is and why we use it
        XML and SGML: Why we use XML
        Markup Languages Accepted by TLDP
      Distributing Your Documentation
        Before Distributing Your Documentation
        Licensing and Copyright
        Acknowledgments
        TLDP Review Process
        Submission to LDP for publication
      Maintaining Your HOWTO
        Fixing Errors
      References
      A. Templates
        Book Templates
        Style Sheets
        GNU Free Documentation License
      B. System Setup: Editors, Validation and Transformations
        Tools for your operating system
        Editing tools
        Validation
        Transformations
        DocBook DTD
        Formatting Documents
      C. Concurrent Version System (CVS)
        Getting a CVS account
        Using CVS
        CVS Resources
      D. DocBook: Sample Markup
        General Tips and Tricks
        <section> and <sectN>: what's the difference?
        Command Prompts
        Encoding Indexes
        Inserting Pictures
        Markup for Metadata
        Bibliographies
        Entities (shortcuts, text macros and re-usable text)
        Customizing your HTML files
      E. Converting Documents to DocBook XML
        Text to DocBook
        OpenOffice.org to DocBook
        Microsoft Word to DocBook
        LyX to DocBook
        DocBook to DocBook Transformations
      Glossary
      F. GNU Free Documentation License
        0. PREAMBLE
        1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
        2. VERBATIM COPYING
        3. COPYING IN QUANTITY
        4. MODIFICATIONS
        5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS
        6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
        7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
        8. TRANSLATION
        9. TERMINATION
        10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
        Addendum
    Linux Administration Made Easy
      Table of Contents
      Preface
        Table of Contents
        Acknowledgements
        Copyright Information and Legal Disclaimers
        A Plea for Help
      Introduction
        Table of Contents
        Scope
        Choosing a Linux Distribution
      Linux Overview
        Table of Contents
        What is Linux?
        Breaking the Myths
        One User's Perspective
      Installation and Hardware Configuration
        Table of Contents
        Creating an Installation Diskette
        Booting Linux Installation Program
        Partitioning Hard Drive(s)
        Setting up Swap Space
        Choosing Partitions to Format
        Choosing Desired Packages to Install
        Hardware Configuration
        Booting with LILO
          Multi-boot with Other Operating Systems
        Downloading and Installing Red Hat Updates
      Configuring the X Window System
        Table of Contents
        Getting the X Window System Working with X-Configurator
        Using the X Desktop Manager
        Improving Font Appearance Under X
        Choosing a Window Manager for X
        GNOME Installation and Configuration
        KDE Installation and Configuration
      General System Administration Issues
        Table of Contents
        Root Account
        Creating User Accounts
        Changing User Passwords
        Disabling User Accounts
        Removing User Accounts
        Linux Password & Shadow File Formats
        System Shutdown and Restart
      Custom Configuration and Administration Issues
        Table of Contents
        Web Server and HTTP Caching Proxy Administration
        Domain Name Server (DNS) Configuration and Administration
        Internet User Authentication with TACACS
        Windows-style File and Print Services with Samba
        Macintosh-style File and Print Services with Netatalk
        Network File System (NFS) Services
        Configuration from A-Z with Linuxconf
      Backup and Restore Procedures
        Table of Contents
        Server Backup Procedures
          Backing up with "tar''
          Backing up with "KDat''
        Server Restore Procedures
          Restoring with "tar''
          Restoring with "KDat''
        Cisco Router Configuration Backups
      Various & Sundry Administrative Tasks
        Table of Contents
        Checking Storage Space
        Managing Processes
        Starting and Stopping Processes
        Automating Tasks with Cron and Crontab files
      Upgrading Linux and Other Applications
        Table of Contents
        Using the Red Hat Package Manager (RPM)
        Installing or Upgrading Without RPM
        Strategies for Keeping an Up-to-date System
        Linux Kernel Upgrades
        Upgrading a Red Hat Stock Kernel
        Building a Custom Kernel
        Moving to the Linux 2.2.x Kernels
        Configuring the Apache Web Server
        Configuring the Squid HTTP Caching Proxy Daemon
        Configuring the Sendmail E-mail Daemon
      Enterprise Computing with Linux
        Table of Contents
        Performance Tuning
        High Availability with RAID
        Server Migration and Scalability Issues
      Strategies for Keeping a Secure Server
      Help! Trouble in Paradise!
        Table of Contents
        Getting Linux Installed on new, Unsupported Hardware
        File System Corruption after Power Outage or System Crash
        Where to Turn for Help
        Pointers to Additional Documentation
    Linux Dictionary
      Table of Contents
      Copyright information
      Source and pre-formatted versions available
      Linux Dictionary
        Punctuation
        A
        B
        C
        D
        E
        F
        G
        H
        I
        J
        K
        L
        M
        N
        O
        P
        Q
        R
        S
        T
        U
        V
        W
        X
        Y
        Z
      Appendix A. About the Author
      Appendix B. Contributors
      Appendix C. Disclaimer
      Appendix D. Donations
      Appendix E. Feedback
      Appendix F. References
      Appendix G. GNU Free Documentation License
        PREAMBLE
        APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
        VERBATIM COPYING
        COPYING IN QUANTITY
        MODIFICATIONS
        COMBINING DOCUMENTS
        COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
        AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
        TRANSLATION
        TERMINATION
        FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
        ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
    Linux Filesystem Hierarchy
      Table of Contents
      Copyright information
      Source and pre-formatted versions available
      Linux Filesystem Hierarchy
        Foreward
        The Root Directory
        /bin
        /boot
        /dev
        /etc
        /home
        /initrd
        /lib
        /lost+found
        /media
        /mnt
        /opt
        /proc
        /root
        /sbin
        /usr
        /var
        /srv
        /tmp
      Glossary
      Appendix A. UNIX System V Signals
      Appendix B. Sources
      Appendix C. About the Author
      Appendix D. Contributors
      Appendix E. Disclaimer
      Appendix F. Donations
      Appendix G. Feedback
      Appendix H. GNU Free Documentation License
        PREAMBLE
        APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
        VERBATIM COPYING
        COPYING IN QUANTITY
        MODIFICATIONS
        COMBINING DOCUMENTS
        COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
        AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
        TRANSLATION
        TERMINATION
        FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
        ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
    Linux From Scratch
      Table of Contents
      Copyright information
      Preface
        Table of Contents
        Foreword
        Audience
          Who would want to read this book
          Who would not want to read this book
        Prerequisites
        Structure
          Part I - Introduction
          Part II - Preparing for the build
          Part III - Building the LFS system
          Part IV - Appendices
      Part I - Introduction
        Table of Contents
        Introduction
          Table of Contents
          How things are going to be done
          Conventions used in this book
          Book version
          Changelog
          Resources
            FAQ
            IRC
            Mailing lists
            News server
            Mirror sites
            Contact information
          Acknowledgments
            Current Project Team Members
            Translators
            Mirror Maintainers
            Donators
            Former Team Members and Contributors
        Important information
          Table of Contents
          About $LFS
          About SBUs
          About the test suites
          How to ask for help
            Things to mention
            Configure problems
            Compile problems
            Test suite problems
      Part II - Installing the LFS system
        Table of Contents
        Preparing a new partition
          Table of Contents
          Introduction
          Creating a new partition
          Creating a file system on the new partition
          Mounting the new partition
        The materials: packages and patches
          Table of Contents
          Introduction
          All the packages
          Needed patches
        Constructing a temporary system
          Table of Contents
          Introduction
          Toolchain technical notes
          Creating the $LFS/static directory
          Adding the user lfs
          Setting up the environment
          Installing Binutils-2.14 - Pass 1
            Contents of Binutils
            Binutils Installation Dependencies
            Installation of Binutils
          Installing GCC-3.3.1 - Pass 1
            Contents of GCC
            GCC Installation Dependencies
            Installation of GCC
          Installing Linux-2.4.22 headers
            Contents of Linux
            Linux Installation Dependencies
            Installation of the kernel headers
          Installing Glibc-2.3.2
            Contents of Glibc
            Glibc Installation Dependencies
            Glibc installation
          "Locking in" Glibc
          Installing Tcl-8.4.4
            Contents of Tcl
            Tcl Installation Dependencies
            Installation of Tcl
          Installing Expect-5.39.0
            Contents of Expect
            Expect Installation Dependencies
            Installation of Expect
          Installing DejaGnu-1.4.3
            Contents of DejaGnu
            DejaGnu Installation Dependencies
            Installation of DejaGnu
          Installing GCC-3.3.1 - Pass 2
            Re-installation of GCC
          Installing Binutils-2.14 - Pass 2
            Re-installation of Binutils
          Installing Gawk-3.1.3
            Contents of Gawk
            Gawk Installation Dependencies
            Installation of Gawk
          Installing Coreutils-5.0
            Contents of Coreutils
            Coreutils Installation Dependencies
            Installation of Coreutils
          Installing Bzip2-1.0.2
            Contents of Bzip2
            Bzip2 Installation Dependencies
            Installation of Bzip2
          Installing Gzip-1.3.5
            Contents of Gzip
            Gzip Installation Dependencies
            Installation of Gzip
          Installing Diffutils-2.8.1
            Contents of Diffutils
            Diffutils Installation Dependencies
            Installation of Diffutils
          Installing Findutils-4.1.20
            Contents of Findutils
            Findutils Installation Dependencies
            Installing Findutils
          Installing Make-3.80
            Contents of Make
            Make Installation Dependencies
            Installation of Make
          Installing Grep-2.5.1
            Contents of Grep
            Grep Installation Dependencies
            Installation of Grep
          Installing Sed-4.0.7
            Contents of Sed
            Sed Installation Dependencies
            Installation of Sed
          Installing Gettext-0.12.1
            Contents of Gettext
            Gettext Installation Dependencies
            Installation of Gettext
          Installing Ncurses-5.3
            Contents of Ncurses
            Ncurses Installation Dependencies
            Installation of Ncurses
          Installing Patch-2.5.4
            Contents of Patch
            Patch Installation Dependencies
            Installation of Patch
          Installing Tar-1.13.25
            Contents of Tar
            Tar Installation Dependencies
            Installation of Tar
          Installing Texinfo-4.6
            Contents of Texinfo
            Texinfo Installation Dependencies
            Installation of Texinfo
          Installing Bash-2.05b
            Contents of Bash
            Bash Installation Dependencies
            Installation of Bash
          Installing Util-linux-2.12
            Contents of Util-linux
            Util-linux Installation Dependencies
            Installation of Util-linux
          Installing Perl-5.8.0
            Contents of Perl
            Perl Installation Dependencies
            Installation of Perl
          Stripping
      Part III - Building the LFS system
        Table of Contents
        Installing basic system software
          Table of Contents
          Introduction
          About debugging symbols
          Entering the chroot environment
          Changing ownership
          Creating directories
          Mounting the proc and devpts file systems
          Creating essential symlinks
          Creating the passwd and group files
          Creating devices (Makedev-1.7)
            Contents of MAKEDEV
            MAKEDEV Installation Dependencies
            Creating devices
          Installing Linux-2.4.22 headers
            Contents of Linux
            Linux Installation Dependencies
            Installation of the kernel headers
            Why we copy the kernel headers and don't symlink them
          Installing Man-pages-1.60
            Contents of Man-pages
            Man-pages Installation Dependencies
            Installation of Man-pages
          Installing Glibc-2.3.2
            Contents of Glibc
            Glibc Installation Dependencies
            Glibc installation
            Configuring Glibc
            Configuring Dynamic Loader
          Re-adjusting the toolchain
          Installing Binutils-2.14
            Contents of Binutils
            Binutils Installation Dependencies
            Installation of Binutils
          Installing GCC-3.3.1
            Contents of GCC
            GCC Installation Dependencies
            Installation of GCC
          Installing Coreutils-5.0
            Contents of Coreutils
            Coreutils Installation Dependencies
            Installation of Coreutils
          Installing Zlib-1.1.4
            Contents of Zlib
            Zlib Installation Dependencies
            Installation of Zlib
          Installing Lfs-Utils-0.3
            Contents of Lfs-Utils
            Lfs-Utils Installation Dependencies
            Installation of Lfs-Utils
          Installing Findutils-4.1.20
            Contents of Findutils
            Findutils Installation Dependencies
            Installing Findutils
          Installing Gawk-3.1.3
            Contents of Gawk
            Gawk Installation Dependencies
            Installation of Gawk
          Installing Ncurses-5.3
            Contents of Ncurses
            Ncurses Installation Dependencies
            Installation of Ncurses
          Installing Vim-6.2
            Alternatives to Vim
            Contents of Vim
            Vim Installation Dependencies
            Installation of Vim
            Configuring Vim
          Installing M4-1.4
            Contents of M4
            M4 Installation Dependencies
            Installation of M4
          Installing Bison-1.875
            Contents of Bison
            Bison Installation Dependencies
            Installation of Bison
          Installing Less-381
            Contents of Less
            Less Installation Dependencies
            Installation of Less
          Installing Groff-1.19
          Installing Sed-4.0.7
          Installing Flex-2.5.4a
          Installing Gettext-0.12.1
          Installing Net-tools-1.60
          Installing Inetutils-1.4.2
          Installing Perl-5.8.0
          Installing Texinfo-4.6
          Installing Autoconf-2.57
          Installing Automake-1.7.6
          Installing Bash-2.05a
          Installing File-4.04
          Installing Libtool-1.5
          Installing Bzip2-1.0.2
          Installing Diffutils-2.8.1
          Installing Ed-0.2
          Installing Kbd-1.08
          Installing E2fsprogs-1.34
          Installing Grep-2.5.1
          Installing Grub-0.93
          Installing Gzip-1.3.5
          Installing Man-1.5m2
          Installing Make-3.80
          Installing Modutils-2.4.25
          Installing Patch-2.5.4
          Installing Procinfo-18
          Installing Procps-3.1.11
          Installing Psmisc-21.3
          Installing Shadow-4.0.3
          Installing Sysklogd-1.4.1
          Installing Sysvinit-2.85
          Installing Tar-1.13.25
          Installing Util-linux-2.12
          Installing GCC-2.95.3
          Revised chroot command
          Installing LFS-Bootscripts-1.12
          Configuring system components
        Setting up system boot scripts
          Table of Contents
          Introduction
          How does the booting process with these scripts work?
          Configuring the setclock script
          Do I need the loadkeys script?
          Configuring the sysklogd script
          Configuring the localnet script
          Creating the /etc/hosts file
          Configuring the network script
            Configuring default gateway
            Creating network interface configuration files
        Making the LFS system bootable
          Table of Contents
          Introduction
          Creating the /etc/fstab file
          Installing Linux-2.4.22
            Contents of Linux
            Linux Installation Dependencies
            Installation of the kernel
          Making the LFS system bootable
        The End
          Table of Contents
          The End
          Get Counted
          Rebooting the system
          What now?
      Part IV - Appendices
        Table of Contents
        Appendix A. Package descriptions and dependencies
          Table of Contents
          Introduction
          Autoconf
          Automake
          Bash
          Binutils
          Bison
          Bzip2
          Coreutils
          DejaGnu
          Diffutils
          E2fsprogs
          Ed
          Expect
          File
          Findutils
          Flex
          Gawk
          GCC
          Gettext
          Glibc
          Grep
          Groff
          Grub
          Gzip
          Inetutils
          Kbd
          Less
          LFS-Bootscripts
          Lfs-Utils
          Libtool
          Linux (the kernel)
          M4
          Make
          MAKEDEV
          Man
          Man-pages
          Modutils
          Ncurses
          Net-tools
          Patch
          Perl
          Procinfo
          Procps
          Psmisc
          Sed
          Shadow
          Sysklogd
          Sysvinit
          Tar
          Tcl
          Texinfo
          Util-linux
          Vim
          Zlib
        Appendix B. Index of programs and library files
    Linux Kernel 2.4 Internals
      Table of Contents
      Booting
        Building the Linux Kernel Image
        Booting: Overview
        Booting: BIOS POST
        Booting: bootsector and setup
        Using LILO as a bootloader
        High level initialisation
        SMP Bootup on x86
        Freeing initialisation data and code
        Processing kernel command line
      Process and Interrupt Management
        Task Structure and Process Table
        Creation and termination of tasks and kernel threads
        Linux Scheduler
        Linux linked list implementation
        Wait Queues
        Kernel Timers
        Bottom Halves
        Task Queues
        Tasklets
        Softirqs
        How System Calls Are Implemented on i386 Architecture?
        Atomic Operations
        Spinlocks, Read-write Spinlocks and Big-Reader Spinlocks
        Semaphores and read/write Semaphores
        Kernel Support for Loading Modules
      Virtual Filesystem (VFS)
        Inode Caches and Interaction with Dcache
        Filesystem Registration/Unregistration
        File Descriptor Management
        File Structure Management
        Superblock and Mountpoint Management
        Example Virtual Filesystem: pipefs
        Example Disk Filesystem: BFS
        Execution Domains and Binary Formats
      Linux Page Cache
      IPC mechanisms
        Semaphores
        Message queues
        Shared Memory
        Linux IPC Primitives
    Linux on the Road
      Table of Contents
      Legal Notice
      Preface
        About the Author
        Sponsoring
        About the Document
        Contact
        Disclaimer and Trademarks
        Laptops and Notebooks
        Which Laptop to Buy?
        Laptop Distributions
        Installation
      Handheld Devices - Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs)
        Palmtops, Personal Digital Assistants - PDAs, Handheld PCs - HPCs
        History of Linux on PDAs
        Linux PDAs
        Non-Linux PDAs - Ports and Tools
        Connectivity
      Tablet PCs / Pen PCs
        Tablet PCs / Pen PCs
      Mobile (Cellular) Phones, Pagers, Calculators, Digital Cameras, Wearable Computing
        Mobile (Cellular) Phones, Pagers
        Calculators, Digital Cameras, Wearable Computing
      Mobile Hardware in Detail
        Hardware in Detail: CPU, Display, Keyboard, Sound and More
        Accessories: PCMCIA, USB and Other External Extensions
      Kernel
        Kernel History
      On the Road
        Different Environments
        Solutions with Mobile Computers
      Appendix
        Other Operating Systems
        Other Resources
        Repairing the Hardware
        Survey about Micro Linuxes
        Dealing with Limited Resources or Tuning the System
        Ecology and Laptops
        NeoMagic Graphics Chipset Series NM20xx
        Annotated Bibliography: Books For Linux Nomads
        Resources for Specific Laptop Brands
        Credits
        Copyrights
    Pocket Linux Guide
      Table of Contents
      Legal Information
        Copyright and License
        Disclaimer
      Introduction
        About Pocket Linux
        Prerequisite Skills
        Project Format
        Help & Support
        Feedback
      Project Initiation
        A Brief History of GNU/Linux
        The Goal of Pocket Linux
        Working Within The Constraints
      A Simple Prototype
        Analysis
        Design
        Construction
        Implementation
      Saving Space
        Analysis
        Design
        Construction
        Implementation
      Some Basic Utilities
        Analysis
        Design
        Construction
        Implementation
      Checking and Mounting Disks
        Analysis
        Design
        Construction
        Implementation
      Automating Startup & Shutdown
        Analysis
        Design
        Construction
        Implementation
      Enabling Multiple Users
        Analysis
        Design
        Construction
        Implementation
      Filling in the Gaps
        Analysis
        Design
        Construction
        Implementation
      Project Wrap Up
        Celebrating Accomplishments
        Planning Next Steps
      Appendix A. Hosting Applications
        Analysis
        Design
        Construction
        Implementation
      Appendix B. GNU Free Documentation License
        PREAMBLE
        APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
        VERBATIM COPYING
        COPYING IN QUANTITY
        MODIFICATIONS
        COMBINING DOCUMENTS
        COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
        AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
        TRANSLATION
        TERMINATION
        FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
        ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
    The Bugzilla Guide
      Table of Contents
      About This Guide
        Table of Contents
        Copyright Information
        Disclaimer
        New Versions
        Credits
        Document Conventions
      Introduction
        Table of Contents
        What is Bugzilla?
        Why Should We Use Bugzilla?
      Using Bugzilla
        Table of Contents
        How do I use Bugzilla?
          Create a Bugzilla Account
          Anatomy of a Bug
          Searching for Bugs
          Bug Lists
          Filing Bugs
        Hints and Tips
          Autolinkification
          Quicksearch
          Comments
          Attachments
          Filing Bugs
        User Preferences
          Account Settings
          Email Settings
          Page Footer
          Permissions
      Installation
        Table of Contents
        Step-by-step Install
          Introduction
          Package List
          MySQL
          Perl
          Perl Modules
          HTTP Server
          Bugzilla
          Setting Up the MySQL Database
          checksetup.pl
          Configuring Bugzilla
        Optional Additional Configuration
          Dependency Charts
          Bug Graphs
          The Whining Cron
          LDAP Authentication
          Preventing untrusted Bugzilla content from executing malicious Javascript code
          htaccess files and security
          mod_throttle and Security
        Win32 Installation Notes
          Win32 Installation: Step-by-step
          Additional Windows Tips
        Mac OS X Installation Notes
        Troubleshooting
          Bundle::Bugzilla makes me upgrade to Perl 5.6.1
          DBD::Sponge::db prepare failed
          cannot chdir(/var/spool/mqueue)
          Your vendor has not defined Fcntl macro O_NOINHERIT
      Administering Bugzilla
        Table of Contents
        Bugzilla Configuration
        User Administration
          Creating the Default User
          Managing Other Users
        Product, Component, Milestone, and Version Administration
          Products
          Components
          Versions
          Milestones
        Voting
        Groups and Group Security
        Bugzilla Security
          TCP/IP Ports
          MySQL
          Daemon Accounts
          Web Server Access Controls
        Template Customisation
          What to Edit
          How To Edit Templates
          Template Formats
          Particular Templates
        Upgrading to New Releases
        Integrating Bugzilla with Third-Party Tools
          Bonsai
          CVS
          Perforce SCM
          Tinderbox/Tinderbox2
      Appendix A. The Bugzilla FAQ
        Table of Contents
        General Questions
        Managerial Questions
        Bugzilla Security
        Bugzilla Email
        Bugzilla Database
        Bugzilla and Win32
        Bugzilla Usage
        Bugzilla Hacking
      Appendix B. The Bugzilla Database
        Table of Contents
        Database Schema Chart
        MySQL Bugzilla Database Introduction
      Appendix C. Useful Patches and Utilities for Bugzilla
        Table of Contents
        Apache mod_rewrite magic
        Command-line Bugzilla Queries
      Appendix D. Bugzilla Variants and Competitors
        Table of Contents
        Red Hat Bugzilla
        Loki Bugzilla (Fenris)
        Issuezilla
        Scarab
        Perforce SCM
        SourceForge
      Appendix E. GNU Free Documentation License
        Table of Contents
        PREAMBLE
        APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
        VERBATIM COPYING
        COPYING IN QUANTITY
        MODIFICATIONS
        COMBINING DOCUMENTS
        COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
        AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
        TRANSLATION
        TERMINATION
        FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
        How to use this License for your documents
      Glossary
      Index
    The Linux Kernel Module Programming Guide (for Linux kernel 2.4)
      Table of Contents
      Copyright information
      Foreword
        Authorship
        Versioning and Notes
        Acknowledgements
      Introduction
        What Is A Kernel Module?
        How Do Modules Get Into The Kernel?
      Hello World
        Hello, World (part 1): The Simplest Module
        Compiling Kernel Modules
        Hello World (part 2)
        Hello World (part 3): The __init and __exit Macros
        Hello World (part 4): Licensing and Module Documentation
        Passing Command Line Arguments to a Module
        Modules Spanning Multiple Files
        Building modules for a precompiled kernel
      Preliminaries
        Modules vs Programs
      Character Device Files
        Character Device Drivers
      The /proc File System
        The /proc File System
      Using /proc For Input
        Using /proc For Input
      Talking To Device Files
        Talking to Device Files (writes and IOCTLs)}
      System Calls
        System Calls
      Blocking Processes
        Blocking Processes
      Replacing Printks
        Replacing printk
        Flashing keyboard LEDs
      Scheduling Tasks
        Scheduling Tasks
      Interrupt Handlers
        Interrupt Handlers
      Symmetric Multi Processing
        Symmetrical Multi-Processing
      Common Pitfalls
        Common Pitfalls
      Appendix A. Changes: 2.0 To 2.2
        Changes between 2.0 and 2.2
      Appendix B. Where To Go From Here
        Where From Here?
      Index
    The Linux Kernel Module Programming Guide (for Linux kernel 2.6)
      Table of Contents
      Copyright information
      Foreword
        Authorship
        Versioning and Notes
        Acknowledgements
      Introduction
        What Is A Kernel Module?
        How Do Modules Get Into The Kernel?
      Hello World
        Hello, World (part 1): The Simplest Module
        Compiling Kernel Modules
        Hello World (part 2)
        Hello World (part 3): The __init and __exit Macros
        Hello World (part 4): Licensing and Module Documentation
        Passing Command Line Arguments to a Module
        Modules Spanning Multiple Files
        Building modules for a precompiled kernel
      Preliminaries
        Modules vs Programs
      Character Device Files
        Character Device Drivers
      The /proc File System
        The /proc File System
        Read and Write a /proc File
        Manage /proc file with standard filesystem
        Manage /proc file with seq_file
      Using /proc For Input
        TODO: Write a chapter about sysfs
      Talking To Device Files
        Talking to Device Files (writes and IOCTLs)
      System Calls
        System Calls
      Blocking Processes
        Blocking Processes
      Replacing Printks
        Replacing printk
        Flashing keyboard LEDs
      Scheduling Tasks
        Scheduling Tasks
      Interrupt Handlers
        Interrupt Handlers
      Symmetric Multi Processing
        Symmetrical Multi-Processing
      Common Pitfalls
        Common Pitfalls
      A. Changes: 2.0 To 2.2
        Changes between 2.4 and 2.6
      B. Where To Go From Here
        Where From Here?
      Index
    The Linux Network Administrator's Guide
      Table of Contents
      Preface
        Table of Contents
        Purpose and Audience for This Book
        Sources of Information
          Documentation Available via FTP
          Documentation Available via WWW
          Documentation Available Commercially
          Linux Journal and Linux Magazine
          Linux Usenet Newsgroups
          Linux Mailing Lists
          Online Linux Support
          Linux User Groups
          Obtaining Linux
        File System Standards
        Standard Linux Base
        About This Book
        The Official Printed Version
        Overview
        Conventions Used in This Book
        Submitting Changes
        Acknowledgments
      Introduction to Networking
        Table of Contents
        History
        TCP/IP Networks
          Introduction to TCP/IP Networks
          Ethernets
          Other Types of Hardware
          The Internet Protocol
          IP Over Serial Lines
          The Transmission Control Protocol
          The User Datagram Protocol
          More on Ports
          The Socket Library
        UUCP Networks
        Linux Networking
          Different Streaks of Development
          Where to Get the Code
        Maintaining Your System
      Issues of TCP/IP Networking
        Table of Contents
        Networking Interfaces
        IP Addresses
        Address Resolution
        IP Routing
          IP Networks
          Subnetworks
          Gateways
          The Routing Table
          Metric Values
        The Internet Control Message Protocol
        Resolving Host Names
      Configuring the Networking Hardware
        Table of Contents
        Kernel Configuration
          Kernel Options in Linux 2.0 and Higher
          Kernel Networking Options in Linux 2.0.0 and Higher
        A Tour of Linux Network Devices
        Ethernet Installation
        The PLIP Driver
        The PPP and SLIP Drivers
        Other Network Types
      Configuring the Serial Hardware
        Table of Contents
        Communications Software for Modem Links
        Introduction to Serial Devices
        Accessing Serial Devices
        Serial Hardware
        Using the Configuration Utilities
          The setserial Command
          The stty Command
        Serial Devices and the login: Prompt
      Configuring TCP/IP Networking
        Table of Contents
        Mounting the /proc Filesystem
        Installing the Binaries
        Setting the Hostname
        Assigning IP Addresses
        Creating Subnets
        Writing hosts and networks Files
        Interface Configuration for IP
          The Loopback Interface
          Ethernet Interfaces
          Routing Through a Gateway
          Configuring a Gateway
          The PLIP Interface
          The SLIP and PPP Interfaces
          The Dummy Interface
          IP Alias
        All About ifconfig
        The netstat Command
          Displaying the Routing Table
          Displaying Interface Statistics
          Displaying Connections
        Checking the ARP Tables
      Name Service and Resolver Configuration
        Table of Contents
        The Resolver Library
          The host.conf File
          The nsswitch.conf File
          Configuring Name Server Lookups Using resolv.conf
          Resolver Robustness
        How DNS Works
          Name Lookups with DNS
          Types of Name Servers
          The DNS Database
          Reverse Lookups
        Running named
          The named.boot File
          The BIND 8 host.conf File
          The DNS Database Files
          Caching-only named Configuration
          Writing the Master Files
          Verifying the Name Server Setup
          Other Useful Tools
      Serial Line IP
        Table of Contents
        General Requirements
        SLIP Operation
        Dealing with Private IP Networks
        Using dip
          A Sample Script
          A dip Reference
        Running in Server Mode
      The Point-to-Point Protocol
        Table of Contents
        PPP on Linux
        Running pppd
        Using Options Files
        Using chat to Automate Dialing
        IP Configuration Options
          Choosing IP Addresses
          Routing Through a PPP Link
        Link Control Options
        General Security Considerations
        Authentication with PPP
          PAP Versus CHAP
          The CHAP Secrets File
          The PAP Secrets File
        Debugging Your PPP Setup
        More Advanced PPP Configurations
          PPP Server
          Demand Dialing
          Persistent Dialing
      TCP/IP Firewall
        Table of Contents
        Methods of Attack
        What Is a Firewall?
        What Is IP Filtering?
        Setting Up Linux for Firewalling
          Kernel Configured with IP Firewall
          The ipfwadm Utility
          The ipchains Utility
          The iptables Utility
        Three Ways We Can Do Filtering
        Original IP Firewall (2.0 Kernels)
          Using ipfwadm
          A More Complex Example
          Summary of ipfwadm Arguments
        IP Firewall Chains (2.2 Kernels)
          Using ipchains
          ipchains Command Syntax
          Our Naive Example Revisited
          Listing Our Rules with ipchains
          Making Good Use of Chains
        Netfilter and IP Tables (2.4 Kernels)
          Backward Compatability with ipfwadmand ipchains
          Using iptables
          Our Naive Example Revisited, Yet Again
        TOS Bit Manipulation
          Setting the TOS Bits Using ipfwadm or ipchains
          Setting the TOS Bits Using iptables
        Testing a Firewall Configuration
        A Sample Firewall Configuration
      IP Accounting
        Table of Contents
        Configuring the Kernel for IP Accounting
        Configuring IP Accounting
          Accounting by Address
          Accounting by Service Port
          Accounting of ICMP Datagrams
          Accounting by Protocol
        Using IP Accounting Results
          Listing Accounting Data with ipfwadm
          Listing Accounting Data with ipchains
          Listing Accounting Data with iptables
        Resetting the Counters
        Flushing the Ruleset
        Passive Collection of Accounting Data
      IP Masquerade and Network Address Translation
        Table of Contents
        Side Effects and Fringe Benefits
        Configuring the Kernel for IP Masquerade
        Configuring IP Masquerade
        Handling Name Server Lookups
        More About Network Address Translation
      Important Network Features
        Table of Contents
        The inetd Super Server
        The tcpd Access Control Facility
        The Services and Protocols Files
        Remote Procedure Call
        Configuring Remote Loginand Execution
          Disabling the r; Commands
          Installing and Configuring ssh
      The Network Information System
        Table of Contents
        Getting Acquainted with NIS
        NIS Versus NIS+
        The Client Side of NIS
        Running an NIS Server
        NIS Server Security
        Setting Up an NIS Client with GNU libc
        Choosing the Right Maps
        Using the passwd and group Maps
        Using NIS with Shadow Support
      The Network File System
        Table of Contents
        Preparing NFS
        Mounting an NFS Volume
        The NFS Daemons
        The exports File
        Kernel-Based NFSv2 Server Support
        Kernel-Based NFSv3 Server Support
      IPX and the NCP Filesystem
        Table of Contents
        Xerox, Novell, and History
        IPX and Linux
          Caldera Support
          More on NDS Support
        Configuring the Kernel for IPXand NCPFS
        Configuring IPX Interfaces
          Network Devices Supporting IPX
          IPX Interface Configuration Tools
          The ipx_configure Command
          The ipx_interface Command
        Configuring an IPX Router
          Static IPX Routing Using the ipx_route Command
          Internal IPX Networks and Routing
        Mounting a Remote NetWare Volume
          A Simple ncpmount Example
          The ncpmount Command in Detail
          Hiding Your NetWare Login Password
          A More Complex ncpmount Example
        Exploring Some of the Other IPX Tools
          Server List
          Send Messages to NetWare Users
          Browsing and Manipulating Bindery Data
        Printing to a NetWare Print Queue
          Using nprint with the Line Printer Daemon
          Managing Print Queues
        NetWare Server Emulation
      ManagingTaylor UUCP
        Table of Contents
        UUCP Transfers and Remote Execution
          The Inner Workings of uucico
          uucico Command-line Options
        UUCP Configuration Files
          A Gentle Introduction to Taylor UUCP
          What UUCP Needs to Know
          Site Naming
          Taylor Configuration Files
          General Configuration Options Using the config File
          How to Tell UUCP About Other Systems Using the sys File
          Identifying Available Devices Through the port File
          How to Dial a Number Using the dial File
          UUCP Over TCP
          Using a Direct Connection
        Controlling Access to UUCP Features
          Command Execution
          File Transfers
          Forwarding
        Setting Up Your System for Dialing In
          Providing UUCP Accounts
          Protecting Yourself Against Swindlers
          Be Paranoid: Call Sequence Checks
          Anonymous UUCP
        UUCP Low-Level Protocols
          Protocol Overview
          Tuning the Transmission Protocol
          Selecting Specific Protocols
        Troubleshooting
          uucico Keeps Saying LWrong Time to CallL
          uucico Complains That the Site Is Already Locked
          You Can Connect to the Remote Site, but the Chat Script Fails
          Your Modem Does Not Dial
          Your Modem Tries to Dial but Doesn't Get Out
          Login Succeeds, but the Handshake Fails
        Log Files and Debugging
      Electronic Mail
        Table of Contents
        What Is a Mail Message?
        How Is Mail Delivered?
        Email Addresses
          RFC-822
          Obsolete Mail Formats
          Mixing Different Mail Formats
        How Does Mail Routing Work?
          Mail Routing on the Internet
          Mail Routing in the UUCP World
          Mixing UUCP and RFC-822
        Configuring elm
          Global elm Options
          National Character Sets
      Sendmail
        Table of Contents
        Introduction to sendmail
        Installing sendmail
        Overview of Configuration Files
        The sendmail.cf and sendmail.mc Files
          Two Example sendmail.mc Files
          Typically Used sendmail.mc Parameters
        Generating the sendmail.cf File
        Interpreting and Writing Rewrite Rules
          sendmail.cf R and S Commands
          Some Useful Macro Definitions
          The Lefthand Side
          The Righthand Side
          A Simple Rule Pattern Example
          Ruleset Semantics
        Configuring sendmail Options
        Some Useful sendmail Configurations
          Trusting Users to Set the From: Field
          Managing Mail Aliases
          Using a Smart Host
          Managing Unwanted or Unsolicited Mail (Spam)
          Configuring Virtual Email Hosting
        Testing Your Configuration
        Running sendmail
        Tips and Tricks
          Managing the Mail Spool
          Forcing a Remote Host to Process its Mail Queue
          Analyzing Mail Statistics
      Getting EximUp and Running
        Table of Contents
        Running Exim
        If Your Mail Doesn't Get Through
        Compiling Exim
        Mail Delivery Modes
        Miscellaneous config Options
        Message Routing and Delivery
          Routing Messages
          Delivering Messages to Local Addresses
          Alias Files
          Mailing Lists
        Protecting Against Mail Spam
        UUCP Setup
      Netnews
        Table of Contents
        Usenet History
        What Is Usenet, Anyway?
        How Does Usenet Handle News?
      C News
        Table of Contents
        Delivering News
        Installation
        The sys File
        The active File
        Article Batching
        Expiring News
        Miscellaneous Files
        Control Messages
          The cancel Message
          newgroup and rmgroup
          The checkgroups Message
          sendsys, version, and senduuname
        C News in an NFS Environment
        Maintenance Tools and Tasks
      NNTP and thenntpd Daemon
        Table of Contents
        Connecting to the News Server
          Connecting to the News Server
          Pushing a News Article onto a Server
          Changing to NNRP Reader Mode
          Listing Available Groups
          Listing Active Groups
          Posting an Article
          Listing New Articles
          Selecting a Group on Which to Operate
          Listing Articles in a Group
          Retrieving an Article Header Only
          Retrieving an Article Body Only
          Reading an Article from a Group
        Installing the NNTP Server
        Restricting NNTP Access
        NNTP Authorization
        nntpd Interaction with C News
      Internet News
        Table of Contents
        Some INN Internals
        Newsreaders and INN
        Installing INN
        Configuring INN: the Basic Setup
        INN Configuration Files
          Global Parameters
          Configuring Newsgroups
          Configuring Newsfeeds
          Controlling Newsreader Access
          Expiring News Articles
          Handling Control Messages
        Running INN
        Managing INN: The ctlinnd Command
          Add a New Group
          Change a Group
          Remove a Group
          Renumber a Group
          Allow/Disallow Newsreaders
          Reject Newsfeed Connections
          Allow Newsfeed Connections
          Disable News Server
          Restart News Server
          Display Status of a Newsfeed
          Drop a Newsfeed
          Begin a Newsfeed
          Cancel an Article
      Newsreader Configuration
        Table of Contents
        tin Configuration
        trn Configuration
        nn Configuration
      Appendix A. Example Network:The Virtual Brewery
        Example Network:The Virtual Brewery
        Connecting the Virtual Subsidiary Network
      Appendix B. Useful Cable Configurations
        Table of Contents
        A PLIP Parallel Cable
        A Serial NULL Modem Cable
      Appendix C. Linux Network Administrator's Guide, Second Edition Copyright Information
        Table of Contents
        0. Preamble
        1. Applicability and Definitions
        2. Verbatim Copying
        3. Copying in Quantity
        4. Modifications
        5. Combining Documents
        6. Collections of Documents
        7. Aggregation with Independent Works
        8. Translation
        9. Termination
        10. Future Revisions of this License
      Appendix D. SAGE: The SystemAdministrators Guild
      Index
    The Linux System Administrator's Guide
      Table of Contents
      Copyright information
      About This Book
        Acknowledgments
        Revision History
        Source and pre-formatted versions available
        Typographical Conventions
      Introduction
        Linux or GNU/Linux, that is the question.
        Trademarks
      Overview of a Linux System
        Various parts of an operating system
        Important parts of the kernel
        Major services in a UNIX system
      Overview of the Directory Tree
        Background
        The root filesystem
        The /etc directory
        The /dev directory
        The /usr filesystem.
        The /var filesystem
        The /proc filesystem
      Hardware, Devices, and Tools
        Hardware Utilities
        Kernel Modules
      Using Disks and Other Storage Media
        Two kinds of devices
        Hard disks
        Storage Area Networks - Draft
        Network Attached Storage - Draft
        Floppies
        CD-ROMs
        Tapes
        Formatting
        Partitions
        Filesystems
        Disks without filesystems
        Allocating disk space
      Memory Management
        What is virtual memory?
        Creating a swap space
        Using a swap space
        Sharing swap spaces with other operating systems
        Allocating swap space
        The buffer cache
      System Monitoring
        System Resources
        Filesystem Usage
        Monitoring Users
      Boots And Shutdowns
        An overview of boots and shutdowns
        The boot process in closer look
        More about shutdowns
        Rebooting
        Single user mode
        Emergency boot floppies
      init
        init comes first
        Configuring init to start getty: the /etc/inittab file
        Run levels
        Special configuration in /etc/inittab
        Booting in single user mode
      Logging In And Out
        Logins via terminals
        Logins via the network
        What login does
        X and xdm
        Access control
        Shell startup
      Managing user accounts
        What's an account?
        Creating a user
        Changing user properties
        Removing a user
        Disabling a user temporarily
      Backups
        On the importance of being backed up
        Selecting the backup medium
        Selecting the backup tool
        Simple backups
        Multilevel backups
        What to back up
        Compressed backups
      Task Automation --To Be Added
      Keeping Time
        The concept of localtime
        The hardware and software clocks
        Showing and setting time
        When the clock is wrong
        NTP - Network Time Protocol
        Basic NTP configuration
        NTP Toolkit
        Some known NTP servers
        NTP Links
      System Logs --To Be Added
      System Updates --To Be Added
      The Linux Kernel Source
      Finding Help
        Newsgroups and Mailing Lists
        IRC
      A. GNU Free Documentation License
        PREAMBLE
        APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
        VERBATIM COPYING
        COPYING IN QUANTITY
        MODIFICATIONS
        COMBINING DOCUMENTS
        COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
        AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
        TRANSLATION
        TERMINATION
        FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
        ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
      Glossary (DRAFT, but not for long hopefully)
      Index-Draft
    Windows+BSD+Linux Installation Guide
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
        Purpose of this Guide
        What is Multiple-booting?
        Multi-booting Pros and Cons
        List of Assumptions
        Acknowledgements
        Legalese
        About the Author
      FAQ
      Organization
        About the operating systems
          Microsoft Windows
          Linux
          FreeBSD
          OpenBSD
        Installing Microsoft Windows
          Table of Contents
          Section A: Installing MS Windows 95
          Section B: Installing MS Windows 98 (SE)
          Section C: Installing MS Windows Millennium (ME)
          Section D: Installing MS Windows NT (4.0)
          Section E: Installing MS Windows 2000 (Professional)
          Section F: Installing MS Windows XP (Home/Professional)
          Summary of the actual steps
        Installing FreeBSD 4.7-RELEASE
          Table of Contents
          Slicing in FreeBSD
          Filesystems in FreeBSD
          Summary of Installation Steps
        Installing OpenBSD 3.2-RELEASE
          Introduction
          Summary of Installation Steps
        Installing Red Hat Linux 7.3 (Valhalla)
          Table of Contents
          Disk drive and partition naming in Linux
          Filesystems in Linux
          Summary of Installation Steps
        Installing Red Hat Linux 8.0
          Table of Contents
          Disk drive and partition naming in Linux
          Filesystems in Linux
          Summary of Installation Steps
        Mounting Filesystems
          Table of Contents
          Mounting filesystems in FreeBSD
          Mounting filesystems in Linux
      Troubleshooting
      Conclusion
    Windows+OpenSolaris+CentOS Installation Guide
      Table of Contents
      1.Introduction
        1.1 Purpose of this Guide
        1.2 What is Multiple-booting?
        1.3 Multi-booting Pros and Cons
        1.4 List of Assumptions
        1.5 Acknowledgements
        1.6 Legalese
        1.7 About the Author
      2.FAQ
      3.Organization
        3.1 About the Operating Systems
        3.2 Installing Microsoft Windows
        3.3 Installing OpenSolaris
        3.4 Installing CentOS
        3.5 Configuring a Tri-boot with GRUB
      4. Conclusion
  Howtos
    List of eBooks
    LDP HOWTO-INDEX
      Table of Contents
      What Are Linux HOWTOs?
      Where Can I Get Linux HOWTOs?
      HOWTO Translations
      Categorized List of HOWTOs
        The Linux OS
          Getting Started
          Switching from Other Operating Systems
          Distributions
          Installation
          Kernel
          Boot Loaders and Booting the OS
          Parallel Processing
          Partitions and Filesystems
          RAID
          Printing
          Shell
          Using Linux
        System Administration and Configuration
          Configuration / Installation
          Benchmarking
          Clustering
          Backup
          Recovery
          Security
        Hardware
          General
          Platforms
          Video Cards
          CPUs / Architectures
          CD-ROM / DVD-ROM Drives
          Optical Disks
          Keyboard and Console
          Digital Cameras
          Graphic Tablets
          Diskettes
          Hard Disks
          Jaz and ZIP Drives
          Mice
          Modems
          Printers / Scanners
          Routers
          SCSI
          Serial Ports
          Sound Cards
          Tape Drives
          Touchscreens
          UPS
          Wireless
          Miscellaneous
        Networking
          General
          Protocols
          Dial-up
          DNS
          Virtual Private Networks
          Bridging
          Routing
          Security
          Telephony / Satellite
          Miscellaneous
        Applications / GUI / Multimedia
          Installing Applications
          User Applications
          Server Applications
            DBMS / Databases
            Mail
            Usenet Network News
            HTTP / FTP
            Miscellaneous
          GUI / Window Managers
            X Window System
            Window Managers
            Fonts
          Multimedia
            Audio
            Video
        Programming
          General
          Compilers
          Languages
          Libraries
          Interfaces / API / Protocols
          Security
          Tools
          Version Control
          DBMS / Databases
          Miscellaneous
        Other (human) Languages
          Language Support
          Using Specific Languages
        Miscellaneous
          Authoring / Documentation
          Linux Advocacy / Getting (and Staying) Involved
          Hobbies and Special Interests
        Archived Documents
          Archived Documents
      Single list of HOWTOs
      Single list of mini-HOWTOs
      Unmaintained HOWTOs
      Writing and Submitting a HOWTO
      Copyright Information
    802.1X Port-Based Authentication HOWTO
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
        What is 802.1X?
        What is 802.11i?
        What is EAP?
        EAP authentication methods
        What is RADIUS?
      Obtaining Certificates
      Authentication Server: Setting up FreeRADIUS
        Installing FreeRADIUS
        Configuring FreeRADIUS
      Supplicant: Setting up Xsupplicant
        Installing Xsupplicant
        Configuring Xsupplicant
      Authenticator: Setting up the Authenticator (Access Point)
        Access Point
        Linux Authenticator
      Testbed
        Testcase
        Running some tests
      Note about driver support and Xsupplicant
      FAQ
      Useful Resources
      Copyright, acknowledgments and miscellaneous
        Copyright and License
        How this document was produced
        Feedback
        Acknowledgments
      Appendix A. GNU Free Documentation License
        PREAMBLE
        APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
        VERBATIM COPYING
        COPYING IN QUANTITY
        MODIFICATIONS
        COMBINING DOCUMENTS
        COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
        AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
        TRANSLATION
        TERMINATION
        FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
        ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
    ACPI: Advanced Configuration and Power Interface
      Table of Contents
      About this document
      Copyright and License
      Translations
      About ACPI
      Why switch?
      DSDT: Differentiated System Description Table
      Installing from scratch
        Choosing a kernel
      Backups
      Download and Unpack the New Kernel
        Required packages
        Unpack
      Configure the new kernel
      Compile the new kernel
      Install the new kernel
      Reboot and test
      Load related modules
      Switching from APM to ACPI
      Using ACPI
      References and Resources
      Thanks
      Appendix A. Patching Old Kernels
        Getting the Source Files
      Appendix B. ACPI the Non-Debian Way
        Compile the kernel
        Install the new kernel
        Software packages
      Appendix C. GNU Free Documentation License
        PREAMBLE
        APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
        VERBATIM COPYING
        COPYING IN QUANTITY
        MODIFICATIONS
        COMBINING DOCUMENTS
        COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
        AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
        TRANSLATION
        TERMINATION
        FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
        How to use this License for your documents
    ADSL Bandwidth Management HOWTO
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
        New Versions of This Document
        Email Discussion List
        Disclaimer
        Copyright and License
        Feedback and corrections
      Background
        Prerequisites
        Layout
        Packet Queues
      How it Works
        Throttling Outbound Traffic with Linux HTB
        Priority Queuing with HTB
        Classifying Outbound Packets with iptables
        A few more tweaks...
        Attempting to Throttle Inbound Traffic
      Implementation
        Caveats
        Script: myshaper
      Testing the New Queue
      OK It Works!! Now What?
      Related Links
    Apache based WebDAV Server with LDAP and SSL
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
        About this document
        Contributions to the document
        What is Apache?
        What is WebDAV?
        What is PHP?
        What is mySQL?
        What do we need?
        Assumptions
      Requirements
        Basics
        Apache 2.0.46
        OpenSSL
        iPlanet LDAP Library
        mod_auth_ldap
        mySQL DB Engine
        PHP
      Installation
        Pre-requisites
        mySQL
        Apache 2.0
        mod_auth_ldap
        CERT DB for LDAPS://
        PHP
      Configuring and Setting up the WebDAV services
        Modifications to the /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf
        Creating a directory for DAVLockDB
        Enabling DAV
        Create a Directory called DAVtest
        Restart Apache
        WebDAV server protocol compliance testing
      WebDAV server management
        Restricting access to DAV shares
        Restricting write access to DAV shares
      Implementing and using SSL to secure HTTP traffic
        Introduction to SSL
        Test Certificates
        Certificates for Production use
        How to generate a CSR
        Installing Server Private Key, and Server Certificate
        Removing passphrase from the RSA Private Key
        SSL Performance Tuning
      Appendix A. HTTP/HTTPS Benchmarking tools
      Appendix B. Hardware based SSL encryption solutions
      Appendix C. Certificate Authorities
      Glossary of PKI Terms
    Apache Compile HOWTO
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
        Contributors and Contacts
        Why I wrote this document
        What this document is supposed to be
        What this document doesn't do for you
        Platforms
        Copyright Information
        Disclaimer
        New Versions
        Credits
        Feedback
        Translations
        About the author
      Prerequisites
        General
        OpenSSL
        GNU Database System
        MySQL
        Building mm
      Getting, build and install Apache with its basic modules
        Get and untar the Apache Source
        mod_ssl
        mod_perl
        Configure and build Apache
      Additional modules
        mod_dav
        auth_ldap
        mod_auth_mysql
        mod_dynvhost
        mod_roaming
      Compressed delivery
        mod_gzip
        mod_gunzip
      mod_php and its prerequisites
        What is mod_php
        Prerequisites
        Building and installing PHP4
      PHP extensions
        APC (Alternative PHP-cache)
        Zend-Optimizer (Do _NOT_ combine with APC-Cache!)
      Jakarta Tomcat
        What is Tomcat
        Prerequisites
        Download the binaries
        mod_jk
      Further Information
        News groups
        Mailing Lists
        HOWTO
        Local Resources
        Web Sites
      Questions and Answers
    Athlon Powersaving HOWTO
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
        Basics on the Athlon Power Saving Mode
        Copyright and License
        Disclaimer
        Feedback/Questions/Support
        New Versions of this Document
      The Different Approaches
        The Command-line Hack (recommended)
        The coolrun shellscript (recommended)
        The Athcool Program (recommended)
        BIOS updates
        Kernel Patch
        The LVCool Solution
        The FVCool Program
        AMD 760MP Powersaving
      What Else?
        How to test whether it works
        Known Bugs/Problems
        Fix for sound skips and other problems
        Another Fix for sound skips and other problems (on some Via-Chipsets)
        ToDo
        Translations
    ATI R200 + XFree86 4.x mini-HOWTO
      Table of Contents
      Copyright & License
      System Requirements
      The alternatives
        Table of Contents
        Experiences with XFree86's driver
        Experiences with ATI's own driver
        Experiences with DRI's driver
        Experiences with the GATOS project's driver
        Thoughts on Schneider Digital's driver
        Still Haven't Chosen One?
      Step-by-step instructions
        Table of Contents
        Alternative 1: Using XFree86's Radeon driver
        Alternative 2: Using ATI's own R200 Driver
        Alternative 3: Using DRI's Latest Radeon Driver
        Alternative 4: Using the GATOS Project's Latest Driver
        Alternative 5: Using Schneider Digital's drivers
      Links
      Appendix A. GNU Free Documentation License
        Table of Contents
        PREAMBLE
        APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
        VERBATIM COPYING
        COPYING IN QUANTITY
        MODIFICATIONS
        COMBINING DOCUMENTS
        COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
        AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
        TRANSLATION
        TERMINATION
        FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
        How to use this License for your documents
    Autodir HOWTO
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
        Copyright and License
        Disclaimer
        Feedback
        New Versions of this Document
        Credits / Contributors
      Before going into the details...
      Why not pam_mkhomedir?
      Where can Autodir be used?
      What Autodir is not
      Differences between Autodir and Autofs
      How it works
      Some definitions
      Directory organization in the real base directory
      Virtual directory expiration
      Backup support
      Backup program requirements
      Module options
      Autodir requirements
      Autofs kernel module
      Importing user and group accounts
      Getting Autodir
      Managing home directories
        Base directories for autohome
        Directory organization
        Misc suboptions for autohome
        Example
      Managing group directories
      Autodir options
      Backup options
      Examples
      RPM specific
      Further Information
    Avr-Microcontrollers-in-Linux-Howto
      Table of Contents
      HOWTO
      AVR Microcontrollers in Linux HOWTO
        Licence
        What Is a Microcontroller?
        Software Required
        Hello World
        Author
        Last version
    Bangla in GNU/Linux HOWTO
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
        Preface
        Copyright Information
        Disclaimer
        New Versions
        Credits
        Feedback
        Conventions used in this document
        Purpose of this HOWTO
      Users' Guide
        Setting up the locale for Bengali
        Installing the Bengali Fonts
        Setting up the Bengali keyboard
        Some "special" Bengali only applications
      Developers' Guide
        The general development process
        Pre-requisites
        Translators' Guide
      Appendix A
        Appendix
        Related Websites
        Volunteering for the Bangla in GNU/Linux project
        Software which has Bangla rendering support
    Bangla PDF HOWTO
      Table of Contents
      Introduction
        Copyright & License
        Minimum Requirements
        Caution
      Fonts
        TrueType to Type1 Conversion
        Font Installation
        On Using TrueType
      Keyboard
        Using The Bijoy Keyboard
        Writing Ligatures
      Printing as PDF
      RedHat Peculiarities
      PDF from Unicode
        Lekho
        BSpeller
      Other Resources
        Useful tools
        Useful Links and References
      Acknowledgments
    Bash Prompt HOWTO
      Table of Contents
      Copyright & License
      Introduction and Administrivia
        Table of Contents
        Introduction
        Revision History
        Requirements
        How To Use This Document
        Document Versions, Comments and Suggestions
        Problems
        Credits/Bibliography
        Disclaimer
      Bash and Bash Prompts
        Table of Contents
        What is Bash?
        What Can Tweaking Your Bash Prompt Do For You?
        Why Bother?
        The First Step
        Bash Prompt Escape Sequences
        Setting the PS? Strings Permanently
      Bash Programming and Shell Scripts
        Table of Contents
        Variables
        Quotes and Special Characters
        Command Substitution
        Non-Printing Characters in Prompts
        Sourcing a File
        Functions, Aliases, and the Environment
      External Commands
        Table of Contents
        PROMPT_COMMAND
        External Commands in the Prompt
        What to Put in Your Prompt
      Saving Complex Prompts
      ANSI Escape Sequences: Colours and Cursor Movement
        Table of Contents
        Colours
        Cursor Movement
        Xterm Title Bar Manipulations
        Xterm Title Bars and Screen
        Colours and Cursor Movement With tput
      Special Characters: Octal Escape Sequences
      The Bash Prompt Package
        Table of Contents
        Availability
        Xterm Fonts
        Changing the Xterm Font
        Line Draw Characters without VGA Fonts
      Loading a Different Prompt
        Table of Contents
        Loading a Different Prompt, Later
        Loading a Different Prompt, Immediately
        Loading Different Prompts in Different X Terms
      Loading Prompt Colours Dynamically
        Table of Contents
        A "Proof of Concept" Example
      Prompt Code Snippets
        Table of Contents
        Built-in Escape Sequences
        Date and Time
        Counting Files in the Current Directory
        Total Bytes in the Current Directory
        Checking the Current TTY
        Stopped Jobs Count
        Load
        Uptime
        Number of Processes
        Controlling the Size and Appearance of $PWD
        Laptop Power
        Having the Prompt Ignored on Cut and Paste
        New Mail
        Prompt Beeps After Long-Running Commands
      Example Prompts
        Table of Contents
        Examples on the Web
        A "Lightweight" Prompt
        Dan's Prompt
        Elite from Bashprompt Themes
        A "Power User" Prompt
        Prompt Depending on Connection Type
        A Prompt the Width of Your Term
        The Floating Clock Prompt
        The Elegant Useless Clock Prompt
      Appendix A. GNU Free Documentation License
        Table of Contents
        PREAMBLE
        APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
        VERBATIM COPYING
        COPYING IN QUANTITY
        MODIFICATIONS
        COMBINING DOCUMENTS
        COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
        AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
        TRANSLATION
        TERMINATION
        FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
        How to use this License for your documents
    Battery Powered Linux Mini-HOWTO
      Table of Contents
      Power Management
        Advanced Power Management (APM)
        Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI)
        APM vs. ACPI: Which one?